Academics > Undergraduate Degree Programs > College of Law > Students' Research Projects
Students' Research Projects

Section 101 Fall 2019-2020

  Title of Research Paper Student & Student ID


Measures to Counter Drug abuse in Saudi Arabia

Drug abuse is a growing issue in Saudi Arabia. Studies show that many Saudi Arabian immature uses drugs, especially mixed drugs and cigarettes, and this makes it even more challenging when adolescents are harming their own health and security. Drug abuse is a big problem to the society and has been considered as a monster to both social and economic performance of the society, and has been growing over the decades. Humanity is developing and evolving. Increase in drug abuse has led to devastating effects psychologically as well as sociologically to individuals, family and the society at large and has become the main challenge to the economy of the nation.
Omar AL-Dowesh


Quasi-judicial committees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

This paper examines the legal status of Quasi-Judicial Committees in Saudi Arabia, by focusing on the objectives of their establishment and matters on the functions and jurisdictions of these committees within Saudi Arabia constitutional framework and regulations of the selected sectors, in addition to some legal disputes brought before these quasi-judicial committees and the legal principles that have been utilized in the proceedings. The importance of this research comes through an analysis of the work of those committees as well as their procedures in terms of legitimacy and order, and these committees emerged because of the increasing problems and complexity of matters and its goal is judicial integration in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as well as their close relationship between the judicial authorities and the Board of Grievances, as well as these semi-legal committees and therefore. The aim of this research is to achieve a clear vision about quasi-judicial committees and their specialization, as well as clarifying the deficiencies in its decisions in addition to highlighting its terms of reference.
  Mohammed Alhajri


Saudi Anti-Harassment laws: A Comparative Study with United Arab Emirates’ laws

This research study focuses on Anti-Harassment laws and assesses their strength and effectiveness by comparing them with United Arab Emirates’ laws in the same aspect. It also includes fundamental research questions and problems. Saudi Arabia is under development when it comes to law. There has been a deficit in different kinds of laws and, more specifically, the anti-harassment laws. Harassment is a criminal offense that is punishable under the new Saudi Anti-Harassment Law that was promulgated in 2018. It was introduced due to a lack of an Anti-Harassment Law in Saudi Arabia. The judges, therefore, did not have clear information in dealing with such cases. A full and imperative understanding of anti-harassment laws in Saudi Arabia is by comparing the law with other countries. The comparison is made with the countries that share the same culture and same region with Saudi Arabia, also the UAE are using anti-harassment law since 1980’s. In this research, the law was compared with the United Arab Emirates. The study focuses on Anti-harassment laws in terms of strength, weaknesses and effectiveness.
Mohammed Alqahtani


Forex Trading Currency Market in Saudi Arabia and Money Laundering Crime

Forex as a crucial; international trading currency market widely operates in Saudi Arabia without any specific restrictions. There are various types and settlements of transactions on this service. At the same time, certain risks of money laundering in Saudi Arabia exist due to the lack of laws that focus on the forex market. The study is important due to the strong impact of the above-named service on the economy of the country. It seeks to answer the questions of risks that unregulated forex trading possess, explains the underlying link between foreign exchange and money laundering, and informs which laws and regulations should be integrated into Saudi Arabian financial laws and policy laws to provide efficient regulation of forex trade. There are also certain measures for accessing these risks as well as the practical recommendations for preventing these issues in the future.
Abdulrahman Abdullah ALobaid 201301463


Bilateral Arbitration Treaty

By consenting to BAT, Saudi Arabia would be constraining the use of Sharia Law to global business discretion. Sharia law and Saudi open approach should control assertion procedures. The translation of Sharia law will in general be unclear with various researchers and referees grasping various methodologies. Accordingly, the Saudi Arbitration Act makes vulnerability. BAT will address the legitimate vulnerabilities realized by the utilization of Sharia Law and Saudi open arrangement to business intervention. Selection of BAT will address both substantive and procedural parts of discretion that are biased to universal gatherings.
Rayan Alghamdi


Protection of refugees in Saudi Arabia

Law and order are very critical for the security of a state. The literature review exposes many facts about the legal situation of refugees, the sufferings in refugee camps and the overall effect they have on refuges living in them for an extended period of time. While UNHCR is determined to provide basic commodities and legal aid to the refugees. The ongoing wars in middle east and continuous rising in the number of refugees are making it difficult for Saudi’s Government to deal this situation. Although the current Saudi Government is determined to provide basic human rights to every citizen and refugee but there is a need to revise security policy regarding refugees and to solve legal issues of refugees.
Ahmed Almazroa


Invalidity of an Arbitral Award

There is no doubt that the arbitrator will try to raise obstacles in the way of the execution of the judgment, by challenging it. States differ among themselves in terms of the methods of appeal that are available to those who have been sent against them and in accordance with the rules of private international law. The extent to which the verdict is final depends on what is recognized in the law of the State in which it was rendered.  This research will focus on the invalidity of an arbitral award.
      Mohamed Hamad Alhboub


Compensation for moral damage in Saudi Arabia

The importance of this research in the problem of the extent of the permissibility of compensation for the impact of moral damage in Saudi law, and the different views between scholars of law and sharia’a scholars. Early law scholars may describe moral damage as inflicting on the victim the feeling, dignity, reputation, etc. It is known that there is no dispute that Islamic law have agreed to compensate for material damage, but compensation for moral damage it not clarified in Saudi law. It is understood that the judiciary of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia applies the Islamic law, but the Islamic scholars are divided into two groups, the first does not allow moral compensation and the other permits. This paper discusses the opinions and reasons behind the indemnity and inadmissibility, the importance of its application and educate the community on the need to claim this type of compensation, as well as the moral damage.
Abdulkareem Al Badran

Anti-sexual harassment law in Saudi Arabia

Lewd behavior has become a noteworthy issue in the contemporary society. Saudi Arabia is one of the main nations with high pervasiveness paces of lewd behavior, particularly on ladies. The way that the framework is exceptionally men centered, rendering ladies effectively discouraged by their male partners, further entangles the issue. The absence of a sound sexual offense law to condemn lewd behavior has made it almost unimaginable for the courts to serve equity to the people in question and the harasser. Endeavors to build up a guideline to cover issues, for example, lewd behavior have been unfruitful in the most recent decade. This paper analyzes the circumstance in Saudi Arabia, contending for the definition of a severe enemy of lewd behavior law to address the threat, which has pulled in global consideration in the ongoing pasts with stunning insights and experiences. The nation depends on an un-classified Sharia law, which has no arrangements on the offense of lewd behavior. The situation has made it hard for individuals looking for equity to get a reasonable possibility in the official courtrooms to have their voice heard and decided. Saudi Arabia positions third on the planet in such cases in work environments, developing the need for the foundation of hostile to inappropriate behavior law.
    Nawaf Ali Alqahtani

A Comparative study aiming to optimize Copyright Laws in Saudi Arabia

In the pursuit of vision 2030 the legislator has taken steps in order to raise the standards and efficiency in the judicial branch regarding multiple fields and areas. The main problem is not in the legal text but in the implementation of said text. Copyright infringement happens often in Saudi Arabia but rarely any cases ever see a court. SA’s Legal system for the longest time have lacked and still to some extent continue to lack the channels and legal processes represented in courts with proper jurisdiction and judges specialized in this branch of the law. The legal system is merely a tool during out of court settlement negotiations.
Faris M Ismail


The Regulations of Cryptocurrency in Saudi Arabia

The proposed production of a local cryptocurrency would be a crucial milestone in the regulation of investments in virtual currencies. The development of a local cryptocurrency would lead to effective control of production and generation of a fraud-proof system based on government control. Furthermore, the establishment of a legal framework for this currency would reduce the likelihood of fraud and money laundering because only the government would have the power to convert the coins. Therefore, this study charts the way for policymakers in their consideration of appropriate solutions to the problem. The analysis provides valuable contributions to the development of investment protection laws that other countries with strict regulations can adopt.
Saud Al-Dossari


Traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

As can be seen from this research, most of traffic accidents occur not only because of the absence of laws and regulations until recently, but also because of the lack awareness and driving safety culture among the people of Saudi Arabia.

    Abdalmajeed Alqahtani

Legal Precedent and Saudi Arabia’s Judicial System

This research paper focuses on the legal precedent in terms of common law to give general understanding of it. It will also discuss the uses of legal precedent in Sharia law and in the Saudi Judicial system. Also, information about the adoption of legal precedent and how clear it is in the Saudi system will be provided. The main problem is the ambiguity that faces the adoption of legal precedent in the Saudi Judicial System. As we know, in Sharia law legal precedent is not binding to the judges. Each judge can analyse the facts of the case in the way he sees it efficient, and proof to support the judge’s point must be provided, that is how Sharia courts operate. Saudi Arabia apply Sharia law; however, we can see in some articles in the local law that legal precedents can be used as a source of law.
Faris Alotaibi

The Legitimacy of Transplantation of Human Organs in Comparative Study between Saudi Arabia and the UK

Organ transplantation has been going on in different countries over the years. This research will highlight the legitimacy of transplantation of human organs, a case of a comparative study between Saudi Arabia and the UK. The study will begin by introducing the issues of organ transplantation in general and narrow down to Saudi Arabia and the UK case. This research will proceed to provide a qualitative literature on the issues regarding the legitimacy of human organ transplantation in both the UK and Saudi Arabia. Quality scholarly journals will form the basis of the research’s literature.
  Faisal Al Sununi


Status of Trainee Lawyer in Saudi Arabia

The study examines actions to legalize or rationing the minimum trainee lawyer’s salary in Saudi Arabia. However, trainee lawyers contract is considered as an employee contract under labor law and that means that their salaries must be not less than 4000 SAR according to the Saudi labor law but there isn’t a specific rule that says that trainee lawyers contract is considered an employment contract but is some cases between the trainee lawyers and a law firm office we can inshore that judges is Saudi Arabia is considering the trainee lawyer’s contract an employment contract and that means paying a salary of 4000 SAR or more is a must. Lawyers society must fix this legal problem with the Saudi ministry of labor and social development by putting a clear role that includes trainee lawyers in the labor law rules and consider their contract of training as an employment contract.
Saleem Dahduli


Execution of the provision in the legal procedures in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Civil law procedure

This research focuses on presenting the subject of execution of the provision system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia especially in terms of the legal procedures applied for these purposes and on the relevant rules and legislations when it comes to implementing the provisions and the find a solution to the problems that arise at the implementation process. Furthermore, most of times when the execution of the provisions is implemented there is a vital importance that there is secretariats and rights is particularly grave should be maintained and performed in a manner consistent with justice and the relevant laws.
Adam Barre


Mental Incapacity in Criminal Trial

Mental health issues such as depression have become rampant in today’s society. People who have committed crimes such as mass shootings attribute their choices to the poor state of their mental health conditions at the time resulting in the increased use of the insanity defense among others in the criminal process. The design of the criminal law in such a way that it gives people with mental conditions lower and more lenient sentences has seen a growing application of these please among defendants to get lower sentences. As such, the exponentially growing application of mental capacity in the determination of the defendant’s criminal liability in the last couple of years suggests that the criminal justice process in its entirety may have been corrupted by people.
Hamad Almuammar

Section 210 Fall 2019-2020

Title of Research Paper Student & Student ID

Inconsistency in court verdicts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The aim of the research is to establish the inconsistency of Saudi Arabia pertaining to the Ta’zeer cases of drug dealers within the kingdom. There are two main types of punishments between the Islamic jurisdictions; these are Hudud and Ta’zeer punishments. The Hudud punishments are specific punishments mentioned in the Islamic law. However, the Ta’zeer punishments do not have a specific punishment. The punishment of such perpetrators depends on the discretion of the judges. The research has proved the inconsistency in court verdicts from province to province and judge to judge for similar cases. Furthermore, this inability of the Saudi judicial system is threatening to its ability to uphold justice considering that its verdicts itself are injustice. The research has provided an overview of cases to prove the inconsistency in court verdicts. Furthermore, the research also deals with solutions to this problem alongside the weaknesses of these recommendations. Moreover, the research has also highlighted other weaknesses that have exasperated the problem of inconsistency in the court verdicts further. These include swift court verdicts and lack of access to lawyer.
Shaihana Abduhadi N Alotaibi

Competition Law Against Monopolies in Saudi Arabia

The purpose of this research is to analyze these laws and highlight its weaknesses. It also aims to identify other aspects of the market that form an obstacle for the success of the SMEs. The study is a form of advice to GAC where it highlights the weaknesses of the law whilst providing recommendations to it. Furthermore, the research also states the weaknesses of the recommendations. The research utilizes a qualitative methodology where all the opinions, articles and studies based on the topic are analyzed. However, the legal framework of competition law in Saudi Arabia remains the main source of information that is analyzed in the creation of the research. Furthermore, the findings of the research include the importance of piercing the corporate veil in case of violation of the competition laws, increasing the penalties and also easier access to settlement courts. There are several other results of the research that highlight the weakness of Article 8 of the competition law. Lastly, other obstacles that hinder the success of SMEs such as patronage of the customers and the strength of the links of the monopolies with other stakeholders are also analyzed.
Fotoon Mohsin Algarni

Alternative punishments in juvenile cases

This research demonstrates the importance and the advantages of applying alternative punishments in juvenile cases, and discusses different kinds of alternative sentencing. Alternative punishments satisfy the concept of punishment. Furthermore, this research critically examines the Saudi judicial system when applying imprisonment and alternative punishments in juvenile cases, and the extent of applying alternative punishments to juvenile offenders. Also, the research shows that alternative punishment is actually practiced and exercised in Islamic law.   
Rawan Alkhaldi

Feasibility Online Arbitration in Reducing the Burden of E-Commerce Disputes in Saudi Arabia

This research discusses the issue of the absence of the government role in online arbitration in the E-commerce system. However, most transactions move towards the digital realms in the current time. However, with the increase in e-commerce transactions, a rise in e-commerce disputes is inevitable. The increase in litigation has resulted in a severe backlog of cases in the traditional justice system, thereby preventing access to justice and the need to find alternatives to litigation in Saudi Arabia.  This research is based and it is counting on different articles, books, and research that talk about online arbitration to solve E-commerce disputes. In general, this research will adopt a descriptive and analytical review. The result of this is mainly observed in the absence of the government role in creating a new system, which may govern this type of modern arbitration - online arbitration, to facilitate the process of separating the dispute between the parties using modern means of communication and wireless Internet networks.
Malak AlGhamdi

The Adequacy of Legal Rules to Protect the Individual’s Reputation from Defamation in Saudi Arabia

This research focuses on the defamation in Saudi Arabia, which is a criminal and infringement of the rights of individuals and society as a whole. Defamation is giving someone false information, rumor or fabrications. The purpose of Defamation is to harm a person, whether this person is an individual or an institution. The objective of the research is to raise awareness of the danger and harms this crime will bring on individuals and their reputation. Also, the research aims to provide solutions that can limit the issue of defamation and protect people’s rights.
Ruba AlOhali

Criminal Liability for Commercial Concealment Crime

This research discusses the commercial concealment as a form of violation of the regulations and laws of Saudi Arabia. This issue is widespread in the Saudi community due to economic reasons, security reasons, and social reasons. The importance of this research is to demonstrate the commercial concealment crime and the harms of this phenomenon on Saudi Arabia society and economy because it leads to lots of damages on them also it can lead to other types of crimes, and explores the reasons behind commercial concealment crimes. Additionally, this research aims to make people aware of negative impacts that are related to the commercial concealment crime and to find appropriate solutions to limit this phenomenon or answers.
Nofa althobaiti

The Attorney-in-Fact in Saudi Arabia and how it Affects Lawyers

The legal profession is known to be high and sublime in all countries. And the delivery of legal service today can be characterized in many ways. So, legal practice in the worldwide need tools to help the lawyers and specialists. The legal profession is one of the key elements of achieving justice, as a lawyer is a participant of the judiciary. So, the lawyer carries out great tasks in the relationship with society to achieve and preserve the rule of the law. The history of the legal profession in Islam and Arab culture did not exist with its assets and rules. Islamic jurisprudence knew from the beginning of Islam the power of attorney system litigation and the judiciary remained even in the era of the Caliphs Rashid simple judiciary does not complicate it. When specialists think in the law industry in each country finds that it is the same in terms of small beginnings. This research will mainly discuss the article 18 in the Code of Law Practice in Saudi Arabia, and the lawyers suffering from the attorney-in-fact. It determines the situation of the attorney-in-fact in Saudi Arabia, and how they affect lawyers. There will be a comparative study to see other countries system of the code of law practice.
Haya Al-Dossary 

Section 201 Fall 2019-2020

Student & Student ID Student & Student ID

Criminal Proof in Cyber Crime in Saudi Arabia

This research is addressing cybercrimes in several points through case studies to show how the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia deals with their threats. Moreover, this research will focus on the effectiveness of Anti-cybercrime law.
Sara Turki Alhajri

Enforcement law of minor marriages

Minors’ marriage is a growing concern as it was an established practice in several countries. Many of these countries have abolished the practice and enforced an age limit for individual to get into a matrimonial bond. It is perceived throughout the globe that the institution of marriage entails responsibilities that are not comprehended by the minors. In contemporary time period, the practice of minors’ marriage has been largely criticized. Yet so many countries up to till this date continue to have the practice and there is no minimum age set for marriage. The minors’ marriage has been proved to be problematic as it causes mental health issues for the young girls who get married to older man without their consent. Saudi Arabia is such example wherein the absence of a limit of marriage allows the parents to marry even their newborn children. This act itself is immoral as the consent of the child is not taken. This practice generally occurs due to poverty. The research focuses on the reasons for minors’ marriage and the enforcement and implementation issues of such laws. Religion is made a basis for such marriages because Islam allows the marriage between two individuals when they are at the age of puberty. The issues pertaining to minors’ marriage would be explained in detail.
Mariam Almazrou

Employment of people with special needs in Saudi Arabia

The main aim of the research is to highlight the problem of the perception of the Ministry of Labor towards the employment of people with special needs. It is important to stop victimizing the people with determination and deal them with equality. Furthermore, there are several changes required to the system of employment to ensure that people with determination have equal opportunities to be employed. Moreover, the it is also important to change the perception of people towards these individuals and prevent their victimization. Additionally, the research will also comprise of interviews of three people with special need in order to provide a better view of their perception towards the working environment of Saudi Arabia. Lastly, changes are also required to aid the people with special needs to be trained mentally and physically in order to ensure that they provide the same efficiency and effectiveness to people with special needs.
Lwlwh Almaghrabi

Security system of Bank hackers in Saudi Arabia

The main purpose of this research is to highlight the weaknesses in the Saudi cybersecurity system and provide legal solutions and advice to the concerning government body to improve the system. Among the many objectives of the research to fulfill the purpose include analyzing the cases of bank hacking in Saudi Arabia & around the world, reviewing the laws governing the perpetrators and examining the existing system of cybersecurity in Saudi Arabia. It is important that some changes take place considering the adverse impact bank hackers have on the economy and people of Saudi Arabia.
Najd Alsalman

Disappearance of Domestic Workers from Houses in Saudi Arabia

This research will mainly discuss the issue of the escape of domestic workers in Saudi Arabia which has become one of the phenomena that must be addressed and considered as an issue. Where there are many gaps in the Regulation of Home Workers that may be negatively exploited by domestic workers. Moreover, this is the part of the story which is suffering the society especially the sponsor. There are also several statistics on this phenomenon, which find out the reasons for domestic workers to take this step. Therefore, her disappearance is not due to the treatment of the family she brings because many of them run away shortly after they arrive at the home of the sponsor. Thus, the silence of the sponsor about his right may be one of the reasons. If there were serious consequences for the recruitment office of domestic workers and the maid's escape, they would not have escaped from punishment. Further, the sponsor bears even the problems of escape in all respects such as financial loss, psychological loss, and effort in reporting when they escape.
Sarah Al-Amer

Alternative Punishments on Juvenile Cases in Saudi Arabia

This research paper deals with the concept of alternative punishments on juveniles in Saudi Arabia. It discusses the types of alternative punishments, and it presents the reality of its use in juvenile cases in Saudi Arabia. Also, this paper highlights the need for alternative punishments, and the mechanism for activation of alternative punishments in juvenile cases.
Gadeer Almutairi

The Development of National Cyber Security Law in Saudi Arabia

This research provides an overview on the cyber security strategy on managing national security threats that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has implemented. It clarifies the cyber security significant role in protecting the country’s national security and the responsibilities to provide safety of data and information.  Furthermore, it explains the regulations and laws related to cyber security function and the protection of the national security from attacks.
Haya Alshammari

The Inconsistent Judgements in the Saudi General Court

Saudi Arabia is a country that apply the Sharia-based system, as its stated in the first article of the Saudi Arabia Basic System. Although, Saudi Arabia has been codifying different aspects of law, the Saudi government till now did not codify the Islamic civil transaction law. In response to this fact, Saudi general courts face inconsistent judgment when it comes to applying the rules of the Islamic civil transaction jurisprudence, since Islam has different sects, judges will rule based on the beliefs they follow, meaning that the judges have different judgments for the same issue. The purpose of this research is investigating and analyzing the is inconsistence of judgments in the Saudi general court, its relation to the codification of the Islamic civil transaction law, and to propose the possibility of codified Islamic civil transactions Law to the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Justice.
Ibtihal Waheeb Alharbi

Arms Possession in Saudi Arabia

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive view about the arms possession, the right of people to possess arms, and about the illegal possession of arms, and the misuse of arms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the related laws in the Saudi legal system, and what are the appropriate means to solve this phenomenon according to the culture of Saudi society. Also, this paper will explain the relationship between possession and use of arms in public events and the prevalence of homicides in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the content of this paper will explain the current sanctions imposed under the Saudi legal system and some verses from the Quran and prophetic hadiths, and will clarify appropriate solutions and suggestions that may help in solving this problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Shahad Mohammed Zabani

Mental Illness and Criminality

Although specialists like lawyers and psychiatrists have found that those who claim mental illness to escape or mitigate their crime are rare cases, and may occur in very specific numbers and do not constitute a phenomenon, but some of them found that the claim of mental illness before Perpetrators of crimes are a reflection of the reality of some social relations based on personal interests, which may prompt some to use their jobs to extract false reports proving instability of the psychological side of the criminal, If we recognize that the mental health prosecutor is skilled in representing the state of mental illness and has experience with all the mysteries of the mental illness that he claims, how is it possible to discover the doctor entrusted with examining his mental state to ensure his psychological balance and come out with his truth without a doubt. The importance of the study is to look into these issues and come up with better solutions, to make people aware of the fact that mentally ill patients require treatment that could make their condition better.
Najd Alabdullah

Legality of Electronic Contracts

Alongside with the recent technological development, people has started to change the traditional ways of living. Commerce and contracts have also been affected by such development. The traditional way to be bound by a contract, was by the mere concept of offer and acceptance.  In today’s digital world, contracts can be in electronic form through electronic means. One of the good legal system examples that regulate electronic commerce, is the American legislation. Where in United States the consumer protection is always in favor of the consumers.  Although the growth of the electronic commerce is spreading very fast and the volume of electronic transactions is huge in Saudi Arabia, however, the regulations are still unclear and facing many challenges. Some of the challenges that face the electronic commerce are, the lack of regulations and the inability to enforce the current applicable laws. Which results in the violation of the consumers’ rights and sometime the merchants’ rights.  There are many disputes concerning some electronic commerce and contracts in the kingdom and currently some courts still reject those cases and in some other courts it is taking a very long time to be resolved.
Shooq Ali Alzawad

Limitation Ship-owners Liability for Maritime Injury Claims

The objective of this research is to examine the Sharia perspective, new Saudi Maritime law, and 1976 Convention on limitation of liability. In addition, methodology is obtaining primary and secondary sources, which is a qualitative technique research. Moreover, significant of this research is that Saudi Arabia is planning for obtaining maritime logistics hub according to vision 2030. Furthermore, the scope focuses only on Saudi’s ship-owners and personal injuries claim that are held against ship-owner in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Shahad Sager H. Alamri

Anti- Money laundering: Regarding Saudi Arabia banks

This paper covers the money laundering as one of the major problems in the world since it violates the law, it also uses and abuses the public. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-money laundering efforts of the Saudi Arabia Financial Investigations Unit (SAFIU). This problem is also present in Saudi Arabia as there are money launderers in the country. The objective of the study includes to ascertain the criminal act of money laundering and how it affects the country, make sure anti-money laundering law rules are applied at banks in Saudi Arabia, and finding a solution for the issue.
Ghayah Bohliga

Judicial Review in Saudi Arabia and a Proposal for Constitutional Court

As applied challenge is the type of judicial review in Saudi Arabia, which may bring negative outcome in Saudi Arabia because it does not eliminate the law for good which may result in another problem in the future for other individuals, also it is not done in an independent institution were most judges have constitutional background which that led to inconsistently of judgment and problems of constitutionality of the law. Therefore, the main objective of this research paper is a proposal for the constitutional court to eliminate these problems.
Dana Yaghmour

Saudi Aramco’s Post Initial Public Offering Legal Challenges in the International Stock Markets

Saudi Aramco intends to launch an IPO that will be the largest in the history of the world. The decision is inspired by the need to raise $100 billion from the international stock market as a way of providing Saudi Arabia with an opportunity to lower its overdependence on oil revenue. However, this investment agenda faces several legal challenges. Therefore, this research aims to analyze if Saudi Aramco’s IPO meets international stock market requirements. It will also investigate the major legal obstacles associated with the implementation of the proposed IPO. Moreover, it will endeavor to discover if the five major international markets – London, New York, Tokyo, Singapore, and Hong Kong, are willing to modify their listing requirements and regulations to support Aramco’s IPO. However, the study hypothesizes that Aramco will face diverse legal problems in the international arena, such as the limited percentage of shares that it is willing to trade, company confidentiality issues, dilemmas pertaining to JASTA, NOPEC, and SEC at the NYSE, and excessive and intrusive legal demands from all potential exchanges.
Yasmeen Alhammadi

Section 114 Spring 2019-2020

Student & Student ID Student & Student ID

Judicial Enforcement in Saudi Arabia

Judicial Enforcement Law has been a controversial subject lately in the legal field and that is due to certain legal provisions that regulate the enforcement of judicial decisions in relation to private debts. This paper shows the initial state of the statute and explores the progress made by the amendment and gauges whether these amendments were enough to reform the statute or further amendments required. This study also compares the law to the UK legal position and finally gives recommendations for future improvements.
Suliman Al Gazlan

Employment or work contract termination, indemnity and end of service benefits of employees under the Saudi Arabia Labor Law

This research explores Saudi Arabia Labor Law concerning termination of employees specifically on the grounds and effects of termination. Further, this paper presents the damages upon the severance of employer-employee relationship also because the end of service benefit. The problems presented were answered using the qualitative methodology of research. Based on the research findings, this paper suggests areas for legal improvements.
Faisal Albugmi

Judicial Remedies and Compensation for Murder in KSA

This research paper examines the ‘blood money’ in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. there by looking at the legal definitions of blood money and the conditions for its eligibility. There are many cases and examples in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in this context. This paper presents how to calculate blood money in Islamic law and its application in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Omar Ahmed

The Role of Legal Precedents in Saudi Arabia

In Saudi Arabia, the constitution is based on the Sharia law and the Islamic Saudi Legal framework. Based on Sharia, each judge can examine the merits of the case in the manner he sees just and fair. In any case, there are articles under the law that legitimate points of reference can be utilized as a wellspring of law. For instance, article 185 of the Saudi Labor Law, which gives a few grounds to use points of reference as the legal conditions. This paper concludes on the lawful point of reference as far as precedent-based law to give general comprehension of it.
Raeid Aldhaferi

Personal Data Protection

Data privacy and security has been a matter of concern in many countries around the world. Different entities today gather and use personal information without the consent of owners. Therefore, the primary purpose of the research is to explore the concept of personal data in Saudi Arabia, the laws involved, and what the administration in the Kingdom could implement to enhance the protection of private information. The study applies a systematic review approach to gather data and investigate the aspect of personal data protection in Saudi Arabia because a satisfactory systematic review can establish the extent to which the Kingdom protects private information based on the law. The findings of the study establish that Saudi Arabia lacks definite data security, which leaves its citizens vulnerable to a breach of privacy. The research recommends that Saudi Arabia should consider implementing the principles of the GDPR. Further, the administration must understand that tech-corporations’ hide behind the broad Shari’ah law to create long and complicated terms and conditions. Lastly, Saudi Arabia should use smart data privacy laws to ensure the security of sensitive information. Therefore, the research effectively exhibits the significance of implementing data security policies.

Yousef Almutawa

Traffic Violation and Traffic law

This research topic aims to study more about the types of accidents, their causes and their prevention. For several decades, there has been no clear law regarding compliance with the speed limit and advanced technology to catch offenders in Saudi Arabia. Although there are some positive developments against traffic violations, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is still one of the countries most exposed to accidents and records the highest rates of deaths annually. This means that either the systems are ineffective or that awareness in society is at low level to absorb the extent of the damage that is costing the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in material and moral terms. In this paper, we will present plans and standards that reduce accidents and increase community awareness of the importance of prevention.
Sultan Sadeq

Qisas and Taazir Penalties in the Saudi Penal System

A lot of human rights entities, in the legal field, have recommended to prepare a penal system to codify retribution (Qisas) and regulating crimes and leverage (Ta’zir) punishments. The Islamic legislation system in its subjects and content is extensive. This study compares to other legal system in order to make recommendation on the regulation and guarantees in achieving a just and fairness.
Azzam Alarifi

Artificial Intelligence and Manufacturer’s Legal Liability in Saudi Arabia

Artificial intelligence is gaining prominence throughout the world. Although Saudi Arabia is among the leading adopters of AI technology, the country lacks requisite laws and regulations to govern the liability of AI manufacturers. The legal question that arises from the use of AI is where liability lies when an AI technology gets involved in illegality. Current technology does not have the autonomy to a level where the machine acts on its own will. The essential factor is to identify where the control lies. Most machines act based on commands of the manufacturer or the user. It is possible to have civil and criminal issues arising from the actions of the AI technology. In this paper, the researcher reviews the literature on the issue with an emphasis on the European Commission Liability of Artificial Intelligence and other emerging technologies. Recommendations are made on how Saudi Arabia should deal with the emerging issues of AI technologies and prepare for future developments.
Faisal Alkhuzaiym

Section 210 Spring 2019-2020

Student & Student ID Student & Student ID

Law and Family Absenteeism in Saudi Arabia

At the beginning of 2019, there were many cases of Saudi women fleeing from the country escaping male guardianship and claiming asylum in foreign countries. At least four cases are well known in society that run from their families hidden and claimed asylum. Although, women run from their violent families this act of women is recognized as a crime in Saudi Arabia. The research is not intending to discuss and judge Islamic principles, however, the cases illustrated and reported in this study aims to prevent the action of absenteeism in KSA. This research explores the question of women absenteeism in KSA. Legal evaluation of women absenteeism given attempts to not recognize absenteeism as misconduct or offense, that to treat women that escape their families as an offender. With the comparison of labor absenteeism, disappeared person, and escaping (abscond) offender researcher attempts to verify that after reaching a particular age the male guardianship should be abolished.
Bayan K. Alghubaini

Mental Illness under the Criminal Justice

Mental illness is a condition of the person with the disorder of thinking, feeling, and differentiating the real world and fiction. The cause of the appearance of mental illness varies it can be biological, genetic, environmental, or family factors. Many people suffer from illness and taking long-term medications and psychotherapy. There are different types of illness and it has many classifications; some of the individuals with the illness cannot differentiate what is wrong and what is correct. However, diagnosing should be done by a specialist – psychiatrist. Sometimes people stop taking their medications or medicine can’t help in a case, in some cases, mentally ill persons became not safe for society. People who are creating danger for a society or himself should treat in force in a hospital. This theory functioned in the USA, UK, and some other European countries. Unfortunately, there are cases where the offender is a mentally ill person who can’t differentiate the reality from the fiction world even doing wrongs on his life. Being dangerous to himself and bringing danger to society should be stopped by his beloved relatives taking to treatment, isolating from society. In other cases, the offenders are excluded from liability providing evidence that he is a mentally ill. This research study cases where the offender is mentally ill person that must be treated in a special treatment, but under some circumstances is in jail.
Aljohara Alajmi

Aggression at school, School fights and aggression of students in Saudi Arabia: A legal perspective to the problem

The youth is the strength of every society. However, Saudi Arabia is currently facing a crisis of behavioral violations amongst teenagers and youth of the society. There are several psychological reasons behind student aggression and school fights. However, the aim of the research is to focus on the legal aspects of the problem of student aggression. During the course of the research, several cases, legal frameworks and statistics were analyzed in order to understand the legal issues that is causes these behaviors to exist in the society of Saudi Arabia.
Asma Al-sulim

Discrimination in dependents’ Healthcare in KSA

Labor law of the KSA is adopted to regulate and standardize the relation between employers and employees. The Kingdom faces cases where discrimination occurs in a workplace, also discrimination before entering the job is practicing that is based on dependents healthcare. Companies trying to escape payments for health insurance rejecting potential employees from entering the labor market. This form of discrimination is one of the most difficult tasks. Especially when there is a legislation malfunction as not included element in an article it is impossible to prove. Comparative studies and legal analysis of labor legislation of various countries show the importance of defining of dependents and its classification in labor law. As a result of research and to prevent discrimination recommendation to the Government to implement legislation including the term ‘Dependent’ in Labor Law of KSA.
Jawaher Alnahdi

Fake News Act in KSA: Comparative Study

Fake news have been prevalent in almost all sectors in the modern world. People have used unverified information to create havoc in the society thereby disturbing the peace and harmony. The Islamic community has continuously discouraged rumors especially considering that they are key causes of disruption across the world. The society deliberates for peace and harmony and would discourage any instance the positive attributes would be disturbed by fake news. There are different laws which take effect in the Islamic countries to discourage the instances of fake news. The law ensures the suspects pay for their unjust practices which is also the provided for in the Quran. The current research develops an intensive analysis of how the different Islamic countries address the various instances of fake news in their territories focusing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. From the diversity of propaganda and fake news, the research analyzes how the different instances are handled while retaining the freedom of speech. Answering the provided research questions provides the rationale and hypothesis present to deal with the presented issue. The information would provide the direction for further requirements needed to address the matter. A review of literature and the qualitative methodology have been employed to establish the key articles and other written resources to provide the detailed research.
Lama Azeb

Cybercrime: Data Breach and Malware

This research will mainly discuss cybercrime and how it impacts people and society, especially in Saudi Arabia. Cybercrime is a criminal activity that involves a computer, a network, and a networked device. Most of the cybercrimes are carried out to generate profit for the cybercriminals who intend to harm the user or the computer through the spreading of malware, misinformation or stealing of information to cause any malicious act. Cybercrime cause irreversible damage to the person or entity who goes through different types of damages such as psychological damage, physical damage, disturbs the confidence and life of a person. Since cybercrime has different types such as malware, cyberbullying, cyber harassment, etc. people all over the world are highly affected by it. Saudi Arabia is a country that is rather new to the news of cyber but still it goes through the haunting trial of cybercrimes because the young generation and the public, in general, are not aware of it or how to stay safe from cybercrimes. Through this research, different precautionary measures will be explained and it will be highlighted what can be done if one becomes a part of a cybercrime or any malicious intended attack or threat is sent his or her way.
Shahad Almentakh

The commercial concealment in Saudi Arabia for small and medium business

This research will mainly discuss The commercial concealment has negative economic, security and social implications. It was linked to several other phenomena such as money laundering operations and the violation of residence and labor regulations by foreign workers who were deported from the country several times because of their illegal entry. Trading activities by foreigners have been widespread for two main reasons: firstly because of job availability, secondly the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the shrine for many Muslims, particularly after the Umrah (mini religious pilgrimage ceremony) or hajj season. Such reasons have led to the emergence of a significant Number of foreigners with the help of a Saudi citizen who participate in commercial concealment activities. These activities have applied to both the economy and society in a negative way, nothing that the number of foreigners is increasing. Further aggravating this problem, foreigners conceal their operations from each other by recruiting other foreigners in their businesses and not Saudi citizens. More light has been shed on the problem of commercial concealment, whereby people, the media and authorities have begun to fight this trend altogether. Especially after the spread of many crimes related to security. In addition, commercial concealment played a role in rising the youth unemployment rate and in restricting foreigners from many commercial and service businesses in which small businesses occupy a large portion.
Ghadh Said Alzahrani

Freedom of speech in Saudi Arabia

The Middle East and North Africa have been tossed into change as social developments have developed and grabbed hold in a large number of the nations. The job of long-range interpersonal communication destinations in these ongoing uprisings has been to a great extent discussed. Regardless of whether or not person to person communication destinations. However, in the midst of the bedlam during the Arab Spring, Saudi Arabia has to a great extent gone unaffected by social developments. There has been contradiction with respect to why the residents of Saudi Arabia have not revitalized against the legislature. This paper digs into this issue by first giving foundation on long range interpersonal communication destinations' clients, the reasonability of free discourse and their job in the Arab Spring so as to investigate how Saudi Arabia had the option to avoid social uprising regardless of the developments that emerged all through the zone. The creator finishes up that despite the fact that the Internet in Saudi Arabia is effectively controlled and interpersonal interaction destinations are not, accordingly it has been the social changes that the legislature has made in light of objection from the open that has permitted the nation to dodge.
Bahiah Y Alazman

Citizenship Issue is KSA: Child Under Mixed Marriages

The main focus on this report will be to find the reasons of citizenship issues in Saudi Arabia and child under mixed marriages and find resolutions to this problem. Gender inequality in our society today is basically related to cultural norms, traditions, and some religions principles. Furthermore, the extent of this project considering Saudi Arabia and other countries such as Jordan and Kuwait which faced the same issue, but they resolved it recently. A lot of middle eastern countries saw the importance of giving mothers of mixed marriages the right of citizenship. This research suggests some solutions to diminish these barriers that prevent this issue from resolving. It also recommends some points to Saudi government that will help to explain this right to the society and make it easily to understand why they need to exercise their right of passing their Saudi nationality to their kids.
Sumayah Ali

Newborn Kidnapping Research

In a society like Saudi Arabia, the birth of a child is always a joy to the family but incidents like kidnapping a newborn is also reaching new heights. The role of government is missing despite some initiatives but there should be some constitutional changes where punishment for newborn kidnappers must be severe and awareness must be raised. This research looks into how newborn kidnapping has been affecting Saudi Arabian society and what should be done to prevent it.
Wadha Alfahadi

Admissibility of Digital Evidence in Criminal Cases

In this modern age, the utilization of digital evidence in trials has greatly increased. Thanks to the growing interest and want has sparked debate about technology, now it’s hard to imagine a crime that does not have a digital dimension. But, there’s a positive aspect to increasing of technology by criminals – the involvement of computers in crimes has resulted in abundance of digital evidence that may be accustomed to apprehending and prosecute offenders. The importance of this research is to cheek the admissibility of digital evidence, and supply a universally accepted definition, foundational research, and a considerable body of literature about the digital evidence tools & its admissibility. In additional, highlighting the Saudi legislator position weather adopted digital evidence as the way of proof in investigation and the courts.
Sarah Nasser Alfaris

Child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia: Cases when parents are the perpetrators

The main aim of the research is to analyze various cases pertaining to CAN alongside the existing laws and the role of the state agencies in order to identify the legal issues pertaining child abuse and neglect in the country. The research has selected specifically three cases. Firstly, the case of Yousuf AlQutia show that it is very difficult to identify CAN. Secondly, the case of sexual abuse of a Saudi boy by his father depict that several children are forced to live with the perpetrator due to the lack of a child welfare home in the country. Thirdly, the case of the expatriate girl show that it is important for the medical staff to always report cases of suspicion pertaining to CAN.
Dhai Hamad

Racial Discrimination in Workplace in Saudi Arabia

Racism is a form of discrimination one undergoes due to their ethnicity or race. Many individuals are affected by ethnicity and race stereotypes, and as much as they are qualified, they feel they cannot have the senior positions in an organization. This paper will describe racial discrimination and review different cases related to the problem in workplaces in Saudi Arabia.
Rawan Mohammed Khalil

DNA Evidence in Saudi Arabia Courts

This research is going to give an overview about the admissibility of DNA evidence in Saudi Arabia courts. The researcher focused on the admissibility of the DNA evidence in Saudi Arabia in three crimes which are the Hudud, Qasis and Lineage crimes. This study of the admissibility of DNA evidence in Saudi Arabia courts was conducted with regards to many perspectives, as it was according to the Islamic schools’ point of views with their arguments, judges that were interviewed, and the legal aspect based on judicial precedents. Moreover, the research focused on the errors that might occur in the DNA evidence and how it might affect the result of the DNA evidence. Consequently, the researcher was able to answer the research question regarding the admissibility of DNA evidence in Saudi Arabia and the reliability of DNA evidence.
Nouf AlOmair

Critical Examination of the Rule of Authorities in Dealing with Violence Against Women

Violence against women’s is now extensively acknowledged by a serious human right abuse, and an important public health problem with substantial consequences physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health. Violence could often happen to individual regardless of their age, gender, race, and religion. As in other countries, many women in Saudi Arabia are subject to domestic violence. Prior to the adoption of the law “Protection from Abuse Law”, the Saudi judiciary authorities did not have written legal guidelines on treating violence against women as criminal behavior. In the absence of the penal code, judges rely exclusively on their personal interpretations of Sharia - which are not codified - in determining whether specific acts are criminal or not. The main aim of the study is to identify and examine the rule of authorities’ in dealing with domestic violence cases, and to highlight the weakness of the Protection from Abuse Law, and most importantly to provide solutions that can limit the cases of domestic violence, and give suggestions that can improve the current system when dealing with these types of issues as well.
Sara Uthman Al-Otaibi

Human Organ Transplantation and Donation: A comparative study between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom

Domestic transplantation and organ donation laws are different for each country; however, there exists a consistency regarding use of two types of systems i.e. opt-in and opt-out in most countries. United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia have similar laws of organ donation and transplantation, and both countries have taken both procedural and legislative steps to increase positivity and encouragement of general public towards organ donation. This paper analyzes cultural, religious and moral implications, influences and approaches in an individualistic decision of organ donation. It analyzes factors of religious views, moral ethics, racial views, medical history, fear of pain associated with organ procurement after death, ethnicity, personal preference of donor, and cultural influences which shape a person’s decision to donate organ. Thus, it discusses various approaches to help bridging a gap in global demand-and-supply of organ transplantation with special reference and context of United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Layan M AlQahtani

The Admissibility of Electronic Divorce in Saudi Arabia

Technology has changed the path of most transactions, thus, most transactions are being made online now, which is due to various factors, such as expeditious and cheapness. In fact, people nowadays use electronic transactions even in their marriage and divorce, however, the admissibility of electronic evidence was not discussed nor addressed in the Saudi Civil Procedures, thus, the admissibility of electronic divorce is an unanswered issue, such issue is derived from the absence of a codified personal statue law. Correspondingly, it has been found that Saudi Arabia’s legal system admits the electronic divorce, when disputed as a presumption, and not as an evidence. On the other hand, when it is not disputed, it is considered effective once it has been established that the sender was the husband himself, and thus, such message reflected his intention and wish, this was measured with the explicit divorce form, which only required pronunciation and intention.
Asail R. AlDoulab

Rights of Animals in KSA

Animals need as much protection and care as any human being, maybe more because not only they are living beings but also they are unable to express their feelings and pain like we human. They have been miserable at the hands of their masters who treat them with cruelty and careless manner, not feeding them on time and hitting them whenever they feel like. The most disgusting thing is that humans are known for torturing hapless animals just or the sake of fun. Keeping all these things in mind, this research will focus on the matter of rights of animals’ in KSA. Being a Muslim state, it is upon us that we must treat animals with the utmost respect, care and affection because they need as much response in return as they give to the humans. This research will also focus on the matter of how the rights of animals can be restored and what must be done to prevent the rights of animals from getting violated.
Reema Balhamar

Identity Theft in Saudi Arabia

It has been a known phenomenon in which an identity thief steals your identity to attempt different types of frauds and crimes like shopping, opening a bank account or any other form of criminal activity. With the advance technology and enabling humans with inventions like mobile phones and other electronic devices that are fully equipped with communicational company aids like data networks. The usage of the internet has increased and so has the crimes that are related to the cyber world. One such crime is identity theft which is considered a new phenomenon in a society like Saudi Arabia because of its conservative nature. But a younger generation is getting involved in the culture of social networking. For this reason, there is an urgent need to stop this crime. Therefore, this research has offered that opportunity through which cybercrime like identity theft and its preventive methods can be understood. In addition, in this research different reasons are presented that which causes identity theft to go unnoticeable like the role of government, and less awareness among social networking users. As the research progresses, the role of government and the general public are discussed that can cause stopping the crime of identity theft or at least could give an understanding about this crime.
Aseel AlSaleh

Child Abuse: Casts a shadow the length of a lifetime

Abusing a child is an act that has been declared a crime by all courts all over the world. There is no rule for those who abuse a child, regardless of age or relationship. In a society like Saudi Arabia, a child abuser is often punished strictly and if the crime is proven then the penalty is death. But what is worrisome that parents of children are found to be punished severely that comes under the child abuse, but no one cares about it because it is labeled under the discipline. Since a child is treated badly and declined fair treatment like beating, punishing, etc., these acts can impact badly the child such as behavioral disturbance, future well-being is affected badly, and a child develops bad habits. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the parents and government to ensure that child abuse is controlled and reduce to the minimum existence so a child can live in a well-nourished environment and he or she is always treated with care and respect.
Nada Alzahrani

Manipulation of the Saudization of Job Market in the Private Sector: A Legal Perspective

Saudi Arabia, like other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, faces a fundamental obstacle in its attempts to create private jobs for citizens: a significant difference in both labor rights and labor costs between citizens and foreign workers that almost invariably leads employers to prefer the latter. This paper explores the roots and the consequences of this twofold gap and presents solutions and ideas on how to narrow or even close it. The paper draws on publicly available labor market data as well as original, as-yet unpublished employer and job-seeker survey data from Saudi Arabia to explore the perceptions and priorities among private firms regarding the employment of Saudi citizens. The employer perspective has often been missing from the Saudization debate, and it must be seriously analyzed if we want to identify policies that work on the ground rather than creating evasion through “phantom employment” and other manipulation techniques.
Sherya J. Alyami

The Implementation of a Carbon Tax in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The study focuses on Saudi Arabia and looks at its capacity to apply a carbon tax as a way of lowering the emission of greenhouse gases that heavily contribute towards climate change. The report shows that the country has possibilities that could allow the application of a carbon tax, but experiences some hurdles that could dampen the efforts to place such stricter measures on major emitters of carbon, which is a major cause for global warming. The Kingdom has considered applying a carbon tax, and adheres to the carbon law that was formulated following the adoption of the Paris Agreement. The government has other plans, which it aims to rely on as a way of curbing excessive and irresponsible emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), but their success would depend on a number of factors. The success of such initiatives and particularly the implementation of the carbon tax would depend on whether the leading oil and gas companies are committed to cut the large volumes of greenhouse gases that they still emit and forecasters even think that the rate may increase in the coming years. The formation of the Saudi Vision 2030 presents a suitable opportunity to further curb GHG emissions that present considerable threat to the environment because of the escalating concerns to protect the environment. The Kingdom appears to understand the importance of lowering the amount GHGs that could hasten the effects of climate change, which offers a suitable platform to introduce the concept of a carbon tax, but as it appears in this research, most of the initiatives focus on strategies that do not put much emphasis on the application of the tax but look for alternatives of curbing GHG emissions.
Nouf AlAbdulkarim

Critical Examination of the Legality of Conventional Banking in an Islamic Sphere

The element of interest is considered an inseparable part of the economic activities in the modern world, as it is one of the essential causes of the economic cycles and fluctuations. The Islamic Shari’a did not draw a distinction between interests and usury, where Islam treats the money as a medium of exchange rather than a commodity. Many scholars have researched comparison of conventional and Islamic banking systems, with regard to their profitability and performance. However, this study will shed the light on the legality of the operation of conventional banking in the Islamic environment of Saudi Arabia. A descriptive and analytical methodology is adopted to determine whether the interest-based financing modes of conventional baking, poses a violation of the 1st Article of the Basic Law of Governance, as well as to evaluate the excuses that are put forward for the application of interests in the Muslims’ world. The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), performs the supervisory role as a central bank in Saudi Arabia, which oversees local and foreign banking institutions in Saudi Arabia, as well as it is the regulatory body of banking and financial institutions. The current legislation of SAMA provisions are insufficient, where SAMA had issued numerous rules and instructions for these institutions in the form of circulars which are not publicly available, and thus the issue of illegality cannot be examined. Theoretically, all banking transactions must be Shari’a compliant according to the Basic Law of Governance, but practically, it is widely observed that conventional banking transactions conducted in Saudi Arabia are inconsistent with the Islamic Shari’a.
Sara Al-Wuhaib

Legal Study on Corruption in Saudi Arabia

Corruption as phenomenon is present in every time and place and not only in developing countries. Corruption undermines the rise of nations, impedes its development and progress, and wastes their wealth, and so it is attracting the attention of most countries around the world. In Saudi Arabia, corruption has been and continued to be one of the major obstacles on its economic growth and development. As per the Saudi Arabian Anti-Corruption Commission (Nazaha), administrative and financial corruption represented almost 80% of total cases reported for last ten years. This research discusses and analyzes the corruption, particularly administration and financial in Saudi Arabia, which identifies some of its forms, causes, and consequences particularly in economy and society. This research also highlights analysis of two corruption cases in the country which caused fatalities and huge waste of public funds, examples of New Zealand best practices on fighting corruption which lead them to be the least corrupted country in the world, and the measures and recommendations to be taken to fight against corruption and minimize its negative effects.
Asma Ahmed Alghamdi

Section 201 Spring 2019-2020

Student & Student ID Student & Student ID

Domestic violence: Is there Defense under the Law of Protection from Abuse of Saudi Arabia?

he Government of KSA recognized domestic violence (physical, sexual or psychological abuse) as a crime. According to Article 13 of the Law of Protection from Abuse maximum punishment for a crime is imprisonment of 1 year and 50000 SAR as compensation with doubling punishment in a case of recidivism. The limitation period of a domestic violence crime is as general crimes three years from the moment of the commitment of a crime. The study is to find a solution to prevent domestic violence with the extending of the limitation period for reporting and implementing new legislation regarding the limitation period and simplifying the report for cases where victim of domestic violence are women.
Rawan kurdi

Mental Incapacity: A Comparison Study Between Saudi Arabia and Singapore

Mental incapacity in law underscores the psychiatric condition of an offender that makes him or her incapable of differentiating right from wrong. Mental incapacity offers a reprieve for offenders under the law since they can escape criminal liability. Insanity defense provides an opportunity for a defendant to assume an affirmative excuse during criminal proceedings. Under the insanity defense, an accused person pleads innocence by stating that during the time of committing a crime, he or she was not in the capacity or position to assume responsibility for the crime. This is based on the aspect of insanity, which underscores a psychiatric condition in which a person lacks criminal culpability. Mental defect highlights a personal condition that puts him or her out of the purview of criminal responsibility. In affirming the role of the insanity defense in criminal justice, the limitation of mental defect plays an important role.
Nourah AlNafisee

Contempt of court in Saudi Arabia

In this research I will be focus on the weaknesses point that happen inside the Saudi Arabian courts that are caused by contempt. Also, give some Solutions for the competent authorities that follow the courts to reduce contempt within the Saudi courts and It is comprehensive to create a law that punishes anyone who is in violation of the courts at the time of the proceedings. In this research paper, I have found weak points in the court system of contempt that may help increase contempt in the Saudi Arabian courts, the People awareness and problem violation of the sanctity of the court. I suggested many solutions that reduce the problem that leads to contempt inside the court. It very important to change the system of the contempt of the court and reduce the contempt by the law and rules to save the court and change the negative effects that occur on the sanctity of the court, not violating it, and reduce discredit courts and contempt.
Adeem Khalid Al Dosssary


The Rights of Disabled People in Saudi Labor Law

Disable people present an important part of any community and they have the right to live and work and enjoy their life. The number of individuals having such disabilities is more than a billion. These individuals might have different types of disabilities such as physical problems, mental disabilities or differences in their senses.
Fatima Alyahya

Codification of capital punishment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The term of codification denotes the creation of codes, which are compilations of written statutes. Which are compilations of full written statutes and articles and rules, which are inform citizen and non-cittern the acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. The main purpose of the research is to focus in the criminal law’ punishments codification in kingdom of Saudi Arabia law. This research is also focusing on solutions of the main problem which is reasons why Saudi Arabia is not codifying the punishments law. The research will focus on the weakness of not having a codification of criminal punishments law, and how to improve these weaknesses in a perfect way which provides a very clear and easy full document of punishments.
Beshayer Mubarak Al-Harbi

Enforcement of Arbitral Awards: Case Study for Sports dispute in KSA

During 2017, an event has taken place in the field of sport, which had many clear violations to the affirmative binding regulations related to Saudi Arabian Football Federations and the Rules issued from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s Cabinet. The matter is related to the ex-goalkeeper of Al-Shabab FC. There was a negotiation between the legal representatives of the Al-Ahli FC and Al-Shabab FC to transfer Mr. Mohammad Al-Owais from Al-Shabab FC to Al-Ahli FC. A lot of mistakes have been committed without ratification or correction from the related or concerned parties. In this research, we will elaborate on the related rules and regulations. Then, we will make analytical adaption of the events and the related rules and regulation which apply to the events. Needless to say, that the aim of behind such research is to highlight the mistakes committed by the concerned governmental bodies as well as the private bodies. At the end, we will summarize the conclusions and our recommendations for the sake of reforming the situation in the terms of transfer Mr. Al-Owais from Al-Shabab FC to Al-Ahli FC and avoiding such mistakes on a similar case in the future if any.
            Wateen Sulaiman Altuwaijri

Safety of construction workers in Saudi Arabia

The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries in the world. The Arab world including Saudi Arabia is creating one of the most beautiful architecture in today’s day and age. However, all these construction activities put the lives of construction workers at stake. The aim of the research is to highlight the main legal issues behind the proper of lack of health and safety of construction workers in Saudi Arabia.
Leena AlMutlaq

Criminal Liability of Non-Profit Organizations for Money Laundering in Saudi Arabia

This research is focused on the criminal liability of non-profit organization for money laundering in Saudi Arabia, which was conducted after an extensive analysis of the 2017 Saudi Anti-Money Law’s articles in order to understand the scope of money laundering as a crime, and NPOs’ involvement with this crime as a legal person, which leads to have a better understanding of its criminal liability in order to increase the Saudi continuous contributions toward the prevention of money laundry. In addition to the Saudi Anti-Money Laundry Law, several researches that are focused on money laundering activities within NPOs and the preventive measures taken by the Saudi authorities in compliance with the Saudi Anti-Money Law were provided in order to examine the existing measures and its effectiveness in combating money laundering within NPOs. Reports conducted by the FAFT as an international organization that is specialized in money laundry and terrorism funding, were analyzed in order to study its further recommendations and its applicability in NPOs in Saudi Arabia. With the extensive research on different resource, the continuance of the existing preventive measure with the application of further recommendations provided by FATF is highly recommended to increase money laundering rates within NPOs.
Dimah Omar Altalhi   

Anti-harassment of women in the workplace

It is one of the most important topics that provokes great controversy is harassment, because it has very many damages to the person and his health and on the psychological level as well, and one of the damages that harassment may produce for women especially in the workplace is the person losing his job, the person lost his reputation, harms the reputation of the workplace from It leads to reduced dealing with the workplace, and also reduces job dealing. In our time, harassment is a big crime, and the person is punished with penalties stipulated by the law, which means that the presence of the anti-harassment regulation saves many women from facing harassment in the workplace, and limits the employee's harassment in his fellow employee in the same place, but in many of Sometimes the regulation may not be applied to the fullest extent, and there are some breaches, which leads to underestimation and non-compliance with it, and thus there is a significant increase in harassment cases that the anti-harassment regulation is supposed to have reduced and limited. However, this research will be discussing the anti-harassment especially of women in the workplace
Hajar Bakhashwain

Stateless Tribes in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Legal Perspective

Stateless tribes in Saudi Arabia facing a serious issue regarding their identities, and the difficulty to grant the Saudi nationality. In 2017, Alwasat News estimated that the number of the stateless people and stateless tribe is about 250,000 persons, which is a huge number considering the population of Saudi Arabia. As a matter of fact, the ancestor of the stateless tribe in Saudi Arabia were originally living in the territory of Saudi Arabia before even it is become a country. But in the past, their ancestor has to move constantly to provide better life and traveling and changing places was part of the tribe nature. As result, these tribes lost their opportunities to register themselves and their families as Saudi due to the lack of knowledge, always traveling, and the absence of communication. Thus, the tribe become stateless even though the originally from Saudi Arabia. This paper will be focusing in resolving the stateless tribe issue in the Kingdom. 
Shahad Salman Alshahrani

Admissibility of Electronic Evidence on Ransomware Cyber Crimes in Saudi Arabia

Since the world around us is evolving in all fields the interaction between us will definitely evolve. The internet plays a major role in our everyday life and for sure the internet has its advantages and disadvantaged’s. Moreover, the internet has been an easy and fast way to commit a crime since the criminal can’t be tracked it. Ransomware is one of those Cybercrimes that are has been rapidly spreading. Ransomware malware is a type of a malware that targets the victim’s data and prevents the users from accessing their personal files. in order to regain access to their data or the system a ransom should be paid. Furthermore, ransomware is just like the other Cybercrimes it requires certain regulations and rules to be admissible in court. Moreover, the question here is who has the power to the ransomware electronic evidence admissibility and who set the rules if it is admissible is it the judge or the regulations. 
Jawza AlSubaii

Monetary Compensation of Non-Pecuniary Losses in Defamation in Reference to Saudi Arabian Judicial System

Reputation and honor are two concepts that quintessentially make or break a man in tribal-based societies like Saudi Arabia. When another transgresses upon these two properties, through slander or defamation, the victim is left with an insurmountable amount of pain. However, that pain is not measurable by others and indispensably the court, for it is solely non-pecuniary in nature, thus not worthy of being compensated monetarily. Hence, monetary compensation is predominately granted to damages that are quantifiable and pecuniary in essence. Another reason behind the obsolescence of monetarily compensating such damages can be attributed to the schism between old Islamic jurists who believed in the impermissibility of non-pecuniary damages, and contemporary jurists that believe the opposite to be true. Although it cannot be said that the Saudi Judiciary has completely turned its back on the monetary compensation of non-pecuniary losses, and that is due to the handful of articles in numerous legislations that indicate or are partially reminiscent of the acceptability of such an act. Thus, this research aims to shed light on such a paradoxical and opaque matter. Through the analysis of Article 35 of the Saudi Law of Printing and Publication predominantly, and its enforcement in courts.
Haya Wayel Osailan

The Inconsistency of the Judicial Interpretation in the KSA

For all Muslims Sharia Law is considered a comprehensive and complete for all of the aspects of their lives with no exception, and Sharia law is valid for any place and anytime. Saudi Arabia is considered on the countries that follow the Islamic law in all of the country’s regulations and transactions by follow the country’s constitution that is based on Holy Quran and Sunnah. Moreover, the application might be torn due to the Jurisprudence’s differences through the four imams of Sharia, and because of the results of the scholars are different1. Moreover, the fact that there is no existence of codification for these provisions it drives us to the inconsistency of the judicial rulings in Saudi Arabia, and unfortunately errors might result without the intention. Hence, this research paper objective is to clear or to point out a substantial issue that is the idea of codification the provisions, and it is very important because all of the judges in Saudi Arabia have their own authority to a very massive extent through the application of the penalty that the judge deems appropriate, and this is unfortunately leads to a very serious mistakes and at sometimes it drive us to the dangerous stage which is injustice. Thus, the legalization of the penalties purpose is to give the accused the appropriate punishment for his action. The purpose of the idea of legalization of the penalties is to make sure that the major objective behind the sanctions is to deter all of the people so that they won’t reoffend. The goal behind this research is to clear and point out the huge inconsistency between the Judge’s rulings in Tasir Judgments, also this research purpose is to show the huge advantages of codification.
Nourah AlKhunaini

Human Trafficking in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Human Trafficking is widely known for its dangerousness, all countries fear it and all countries try to avoid finding it in their soil. Human trafficking is not only about benefiting from the victim but it is also the mental state that they put the victim in, and criminals will not stop until they are bound by a very harsh law that will let them reconsider their actions before committing the crime. In order to let the criminals, fear the penalty we must place laws that are actually as strong as the crime they are committing, and that is what this research is trying to do. After reading and going over legal systems and the way courts operate we found this gap that gives the criminal the chance to commit crime, which is the very light penalties and also the fact that human trafficking is enforced by the Ministry of Labor and Social development and not by the public prosecution which leads criminals believe that the penalties will not be harsh and that’s exactly what we found whilst collecting information and reading cases. Furthermore, focusing primarily on mentioning some of the gaps we found in the Anti-trafficking crime system of Saudi Arabia.
Dana Zeyad AlShahrani

Legal Challenges of Startup Companies

The main research question concerns analyzing the most common legal issues that startups face that larger companies do not, as well as discovering what are the countermeasures of the challenges that a startup company encounters in the context of Saudi Arabia.  Startups have become an inseparable element of an innovative economy. New business ventures such as startups emerge and grow where there is a strong entrepreneurial ecosystem that offers a supportive environment for them. The legal aspects of the process of establishing startups discussed in this paper can often be the decisive factor in their success.  This paper aims to identify and examine the most common challenges encountered by startups in the early stages of establishment.
Shahad Mustafa

The Link Between Domestic Violence and Guardianship System

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a huge historical change through development that Saudi Arabia is focusing on, and one of the developments that Saudi Arabia want to develop is to limit guardianship system and to grant all women their rights which they were complicated to be granted in the past. However, Although Saudi Arabia is changing significantly guardianship system in Saudi Arabia remain floating and vague, and guardians are acting randomly over women which led to the increasing of the domestic violence against women in Saudi Arabia. The limits of guardianship must be clarified, and men should abide to these limits. This research will be mainly discussing guardianship system in Saudi Arabia as a form of violation of women's rights, and will be focusing domestic violence against women and the prevalence of it in Saudi Arabia, and will be giving some suggestions regarding the protection services provided to women who have been abused in order to improve these services and to be more effectiveness.
Alanood M AlGhodayan

Medical Professional Liability Under the Saudi Law of Practicing Healthcare Professions

In the light of developments in healthcare services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there has been a significant increase in the number of claims against healthcare professionals in terms of medical error or medical malpractice litigation according to the official yearbook statistics published by the Saudi Ministry of Health. Thus, Law of Practicing Healthcare Professions was established in 2005, to illustrate the professional liability of healthcare professional whereas medical error or medical malpractice occurred. On the other hand, the law did not distinguish between medical malpractice and medical error, therefore, the litigation process of the two is the same as well as the amount of compensation when a medical error or medical malpractice is proven. Therefore, medical error is considered common while practicing medicine specially in performing surgeries, such as the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim, which is considered unintended injury caused to the patient. While medical malpractice (clinical negligence), is considered as the failure of the healthcare professional to meet the reasonable standard of care, which is expected by an average healthcare professional. Therefore, with the purpose of reducing the amounts of claims against healthcare professional, it is recommended to have an expert supervision inspection over the patient’s medical records and healthcare professional’s performance to ensure public safety.
Noura Yacob AlSarra

Commercial Concealment: Under Saudi Anti Concealment Law

In this research the study is focused on commercial concealment issue and how the government move toward it to prevent it. The geo-strategic location, rich natural resources and high salaries of Saudi Arabia make it an attractive country not just for foreign direct investment, but also for human capital. That is why Saudi Arabia sees a significant influx of human labor flowing into the kingdom, pumping up the economy of the Kingdom. Such economic opportunities draw labor from all over the world to Saudi Arabia.  This also allows foreign investors to leave companies in their home countries and transfer their companies to the Kingdom because of the weak enforcement of anti-concealment legislation. It is achieved under a sponsorship program widely known as the 'Kafeel' method.
Nojood Mira

Legality of Saudi Military Intervention in Yemen

Although Saudi interference in Yemen has gained international legitimacy, regional and international support, and support from the legitimate government in Yemen, it has faced challenges that may delegitimize it. Yes, the Saudi intervention came according to the request of Abd Rabbo Mansour, which is internationally recognized and that the Houthis represent a threat to regional and international peace and security due to their close relationship with Iran, which Trump has declared as the official sponsor of terrorism and thus represents a threat to international peace and security and also the Houthis have turned against the legitimate authority, but there are challenges Against interference with his legitimacy. This can be answered according to the legitimacy of the Saudi intervention, which is that the Yemeni president remained in control of some sites in the south and east and had enjoyed local, regional and international support in accordance with Security Council Resolution 2216, according to what the Houthis did was an aggression against legitimacy, spreading chaos and obstructing the democratic path.
Ola AlGhamdi

Section 201 Spring 2018-2019

Title of Research Paper Student & Student ID

Legal Barriers to Foreign Investment in Saudi Arabia

The main purpose of this research paper is to identify and study legal barriers that have had the most effect on Foreign Investment in Saudi Arabia, and how these legal barriers have affected foreign investors’ plans of investing in the Saudi Market. After appropriate evaluation of these legal barriers, it became clear the kind of solutions that the Saudi government should try to adopt and implement in order to attract more foreign investors.
Nouf Yousef Almohaisen

Child Marriage: A Silent Health and Children’s Rights

This research will discuss child marriage as a form of violation of the children’s rights, specifically in Saudi Arabia. Child marriage is the marriage of a young person who is under the age of 18. The child marriage issue is increasing in the Arab world day by day due to the economic, health, social and psychological effects that influence the girls and society. Significant factors that contribute to the prevalence of child marriages in Saudi Arabia are religious beliefs. Child marriage can cause a dispute in families of both spouses due to the child’s lack of capability and responsibility of taking care of the spouse, starting a family and the inability to raise a child, which can impact the society at the same time. Many international agencies have declared that child marriage violates human rights, as child marriage harms the rights of the child to health, education, and life that is free from exploitation by their parents. However, the prohibition of child marriages can be the first step towards eliminating child marriage in Saudi, which is what the Shura Council is trying to achieve. This research aims to make people aware of harms that are connected with child marriage, and to provide solutions that can prevent the issue of child marriage.
Mashael Alasiri

Unlawful Termination of Employment Contract in Saudi Arabia

This paper examines the ambiguity of the Saudi labor law system regarding lawful and unlawful dismissal regarding the rights and duties the Saudi employees and it seeks to understand the legal and illegal situations of a termination of a labor contract from the light of real-life cases and Saudi law and regulations.
Fatimah Alkhars

Legal Issues on Saudi Women in Prison

The Saudi authority needs to fix the issue that women face in prison after spending their prison term. The authority of prison or the authority of social visitor home does not release women without the acceptance of their guardians. In some situations, these women were refused by their guardian to receive them because they are scared of violence that may face. The research will deal with imprisonment and detention law including the Convention of the Elimination of all Forms of the Discrimination against Women and the Arab Charter in human right. This research highlights the main issues through case study, questionnaires, some interviews with lawyers and people about the situation of women in jail.
Sarah Khalid AlSubaei

Child Abuse and Legal Protection in Saudi Arabia

This research examines the child protection laws of Saudi Arabia alongside the weaknesses in the protection regime. It will also highlight the issues of the system alongside doable solutions that the government should implement so that the rights of children are protected and the child abusers are punished. It will also study the area of neglect of children with the help of survey conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This survey provides a deeper understanding and analysis of the mentality of the people of the kingdom.
Razan Althukair

Cyber Terrorism in Saudi Arabia

Today, cybercrime has caused harm to individuals, organizations and even the Government. Cybercrime detection methods and classification methods have been designed with varying levels of success in preventing and protecting data from such attacks. Several laws and methods have been introduced in order to prevent cybercrime and the penalties are prescribed. However, the study shows that there are many countries facing this problem. This paper examines the common areas where cybercrime usually occurs and the different types of cybercrimes that are committed today. The paper also shows the studies made on e-mail related crimes as email is the most common medium through which the cybercrimes occur.
Hadeel Khouqeer

Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia

This research paper aims to find and recommend a suitable and logical solution to the government, under a problematic area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with a view to start a project for a new law. Therefore, the outcome of this research is recommendation to the government that would help in clearing out the reality of what the media has portrayed and what actions could the government take to mitigate the problems and to evaluate the laws related to the problem to find changes that would help. This paper will provide information Concerning abuse of domestic workers (homeworkers) in Saudi Arabia.
Sabah Al-Mira

Comparative Study on End of Life Decision Making Between KSA and USA

This research considers brain death as a modern issue with respect to which the law applies and in the medical perspective. Due to various legal, ethical and the medical issues involved, one view sees that the dead brain is a sick person and that the patient still alive and he must get the medical attention, while the other view sees that this kind of person or patient is dead and the medical care should be stopped. The research will examine the matter in a comparative study between the United States of America and Saudi Arabia.
Dana Ghallab Alradei

Air Pollution in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

Due to the fast-economic growth and urbanization, many developing and developed countries encounter big share of pollutants and mutual environmental problems, including the failure of law enforcement and the lack of effective regulations. This research highlights air pollution regulations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and what the position of Saudi Arabia in the light of international treaties on air standard, focusing on the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.
The objective of this research is a critical review of the causes of air pollution, whether Saudi Arabia violates their international obligations and the enforcement of its own environmental laws.
Rana Yousif Abdullatif

Women’s Rights in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is Witnessing a historical change in their reform movement and development by granting women rights that were impossible to obtain in the past. Although Saudi Arabia is going through a historical change the issue of women obtaining a role in the administrative and political sectors is still going through heated arguments between the supporters and their adversaries. Each group has a list of evidence supporting their claim as to whether its allowed for a Muslim women to obtain these important roles. Although women’s right to obtain a role in the judicial system have been controversial, several quarters including the Crown Prince have expressed their positive opinions concerning women obtaining a rightful place in the judicial system. This research will examine these issues.
Leena Yousef Alajaji

The Constitutionality of Laws in Saudi Arabia

This research illustrates the old and the current judicial system in Saudi Arabia, as well as the function of the courts system in Saudi Arabia. It will attempt to address the issue of whether a constitutional court or any specialized institution such as constitutional council in Saudi Arabia by examining the different models of judicial review and comparing between them.
Dalal Aldossary

The Principle of Separation of Powers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The aim of this research is to look into the influence of the separation of powers doctrine in the system of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is an Islamic state that considers Sharia law its supreme system. The separation of powers doctrine was not defined neither in Sharia law nor the constitution of Saudi Arabia, therefore, this study will examine this issue. Islamic system does not forbid adopting such principle, if certain provisions and restrictions of Sharia were respected. After analyzing the Saudi constitutional document, The Basic law of Governance, The Shura Council law, The Council of Ministers law, the research concludes that both the executive and the legislative authority overlap, which means that the principle of separation of powers was not taken by the Saudi Constitutional system. In addition, the Shura Council cannot be considered as an independent legislative authority.
Intesar Alkhayyal

Domestic Violence against Women in Saudi Arabia

Domestic violence against women is an act of gender-based violence that results in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women. Domestic violence against women is a global problem that is not defined by geographic, cultural, religious, social, national or economic boundaries. The study explores domestic violence against women in Saudi Arabia. The focus is on the prevalence of domestic violence against women in the country, ways of improving services to women who have experienced violence, and options available to women in matters concerning domestic violence. The literatures explored suggest that high incidents of domestic violence are present in Saudi Arabia. Limited options are available for women experiencing incidents of domestic violence, therefore, existing laws should be strengthened to address the identified problem. 
Noor Abdullah AlDossary

Legal, Ethical and Religious Perspectives in Organ Trafficking

This research aims to clarify the criminal, ethical, and religious responsibility of doctors, buyers, and sellers on the crime of Organ trafficking. The human rights commission’s yearly report states that in the past three years there’s an average of 1.28% of human trafficking that have been caught in Saudi Arabia and 2016 being the most out of the three years with a percentage of 2.02%. International agreements have been created to fight this crime such as, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, to which Saudi Arabia acceded in 2007. It was concluded that all national, international, and Islamic laws have prevented the trade of organ, and the criminal liability falls upon every person who contributes in this crime whether it was a major role or a minor role.
Jumanah Basodan

A Proposed Law on Vetting Divorce to Address Saudi Arabia’s High Divorce Rate

This paper examines the possibility of vetting divorce in the Kingdom and proposes a law for this purpose. It proposes vetting divorce with 2-year effectiveness requisite on husbands who seek processing divorce in order to give more chance for saving the marriage. The method of research which the paper adopts is both a thorough analytical reading on the Islamic jurisprudence on divorce, in addition to interviewing 3 experts in the field. The paper concludes that the idea of vetting divorce is plausible both from Sharia law perspective and from the legal aspect of the Saudi legal system. The paper sums up ad compiles the findings in an illustrative “Memorandum of the Proposed Law”.
Rwabi AlHammad

Rights of the Accused in the Military Court Trials in Saudi Arabia

The study concerns the rights of the accused before the Military Court in Saudi Arabia. The guarantees to the right of fair hearing, as a matter of international custom, have been entrenched in various international instruments ranging from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). This research examines the nature of military justice to evaluate the human rights standards that Saudi Arabia’s Military Sanctions regime complies with. The study recommends an appropriate system and approach towards which the military sanction regime of Saudi Arabia may evolve towards a civil oriented court organizational system. 
Dana AlHumaidi

Codification of Shariah Principles in Saudi Arabia

This research addresses the problem of codification of Shariah principles in Saudi Arabia. It had negative effect on people who file their cases in courts, because the final judgement of cases is based on the judge’s ijtihad which may result in different judgements in similar cases. The Research shows the importance of codifying Shariah which is the primary source of legislation in Saudi Arabia to have a fair trial. It also addresses the ruling of the codification of Shariah principles and the view of the scholars. The research shows that the previous attempts in Saudi Arabia to codify Shariah principles which did not succeed. Finally, it discusses the main findings and recommendations.
Aljoharah Alsubaiey

The Rights of the Accused in Saudi Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice systems can be very tricky when it comes to implementing them. Especially when larger aspects such as politics or religion come in the way of determining a solution. Saudi Arabia has been criticized for a really long time for its implementation of law where it has been described as “unfair”, “cruel”, “harsh”, and even as “a justice system that is not just” which leaves us to the question of: is it really the law? Or the way we perceive the implementation of the law system? This research seeks to clarify this issue.
Shaikhah Nasser Al`Naimi

Personal Data Protection in Saudi Arabia

The protection of personal data is crucial to building an enabling environment, to ensure the safety of individuals and society, and to support its stability, because data security is part of cybersecurity. Therefore, such protection supports confidence-building and contributes to the promotion of trade and e-services. In the context of globalization, ease of access to data and circulation, the importance of an effective system for the protection of personal data, the adoption of a legal and regulatory framework, the imposition of strict legal procedures against the abuse of personal data, the abuse of privacy and the protection of personal data from theft are also doubted. This research attempts to examine these issues in the Saudi Arabia perspective.
Sarah Abdulmohsin

Money Laundering in Saudi Arabia

Money laundering has adverse implications on the society and the economy of Saudi Arabia. It leads to an increase in illicit activities that has adverse implications on the society. Furthermore, money laundering comprises of black money for which tax has not yet been paid. Hence, it leads to hurting the economy of the country as well. The Anti-Money Laundering laws of Saudi Arabia aims to reduce money laundering in the nation. It has successfully addressed several issues and causes of money laundering and has successfully solved them. Yet this system can be improved. The aim of the research is to identify the problems of money laundering and better ways to solve these issues. This will help Saudi Arabia to meet the aims of Saudi Vision 2030 that is to create a stronger economy.
Manal Albluwi

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia

Child abuse and neglect is a severe social issue harming the wellbeing of Saudi Arabia society. The prevalence of child abuse and neglect caused by such factors as socioeconomic instability, poorly developed social and legislative system, low level of education, psychological problems in parents, and failure to follow the commands of Islam. Child abuse and neglect negatively affect the psychological wellbeing of children and the quality of their life. Therefore, the government tries to address the issue of child maltreatment. For this purpose, the Protection Against Abuse law was established to protect children. The government attempts to improve abuse reporting system. This research examines how the law authorities could enhance the law and its implementation to decrease the prevalence of child abuse and neglect in the country.


Haya Alanazi

Admissibility of Digital Evidence in Cyber Crimes

Due to the development around us, the use of technology has become a need in most of our interactions, as it makes our life easier by reducing distance between the people around the world. However, technology has also brought a lot of negativities such cybercrimes. Technology and internet became the platform to commit such crimes which hurt innocent people. Cybercrimes frequently depend on electronic platform to be committed, which make electronic evidence a substantial part of the investigation. But electronic evidence is hard to extract especially that it is intangible. This research aims to examine the use of electronic evidence in cybercrimes.
Haifa Ablowi

Publication of False Statement in Electronic Media

Statistics indicate that there is a high percentage of cybercrime committed in Saudi Arabia because of the unconsciousness of dealing with all modern technologies such as social networks, computers and mobile phones in general. This research aims to illustrate the contraventions and penalties of false electronic publishing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the researcher will focus on posting of incorrect news or false statements. The study followed the analytical methods and systemic review through collecting information from previous research papers, books, and literature reviews. Study results showed that publishing a false statement may destroy life and the government should impose regulation concerning this issue.
Turifah Abdullah Huwimel

Human Trafficking for Begging

Begging is one of the many forms of human trafficking. As in complying with the United Nations (UN), the country of Saudi Arabia has prescribed a national legal framework that attempts to combat human trafficking as a criminal activity. Saudi Arabia has adopted severe punishments such as imprisonment for a long period and a fine of a large amount. However, there are limited efforts to try to raise awareness to the public regarding this issue. The state should adopt measures that aim to enhance the understanding of begging as an issue that produce effects humanity nationally and internationally, to understand the characteristics of traffickers and the trafficked who fall victim to such a crime, as well as in order to distinguish between a voluntary act of begging, and forced begging.
Razan Khan

Protection of Prisoner’s Rights in Saudi Arabia

The research paper intends to monitor and analyze the legal procedural, social, and human rights of prisoners in the Saudi Arabia and to portray the true reflection of these rules and regulations on the reality of the standards of treatment and care of prisoners and the social and human rights they enjoy in Saudi prisons. It has been found through studies that the laws and regulations in Saudi Arabia do in fact give high attention to the social and human rights of prisoners. They do so through The System of Criminal Procedures and The Prison and Detention System which have guaranteed prisoners with treatment that preserves their dignity and protects their rights. Unfortunately, despite all these efforts, there are still complaints by the prisoners themselves directed towards some of the prison staff that are responsible for "protecting" those rights. This research attempts to give a number of administrative and medical recommendations with hope that it could result in proper and true implementation of the rules and regulations that protect prisoners’ rights.
Aljawharah AlAshban

Section 212 Spring 2018-2019

Project Student

Saudi Labor Law Article 77

The main aim of the Saudi Labor Law is to uphold the rights of the employees. However, the employees have faced several problems despite being indemnified. Firstly, the Article 77 provides an easy way for the employer to legally dismiss the employee without any fair reason. Secondly, it provides only a small compensation to the employee. Thirdly, the employee cannot take any legal action against the employer. The utilization of Article 77 has led to the unfair dismissal of several Saudi employees in 2017. This research will examine issues relating to article 77.
Lina Alhudaithi

Guardianship System in Saudi Arabia

The Guardianship system is a set of traditions that do not match with Saudi Arabia's futuristic views and its visions. The guardianship system violates the accurate meaning of guardianship under Islamic laws by the restrictions that are forced by men on women due to the misunderstanding of Islamic rules. This project will examine various interpretation of guardianship in Islamic literature, and the obstacles that women face because of it.
Bayan Al-Malki

Child Protection Procedures in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian government has taken several measures to develop child protection regime which offers comprehensive protection to children from physical violence and abuse, psychological violence, and neglect. The General Directorate of Social Protection working under the auspices of Ministry of Labor and Social Development is the apex authority for children protection. Children protection systems in Saudi Arabia is an integrated system in which several ministries and departments coordinate their activities. The social protection committees and social protection units, where children are kept under safe custody until cases are resolved, work under the administrative control of the General Directorate of Social Protection. In light of the work of the committees, this research discusses procedures for physical violence and abuse, psychological violence, and neglect in Saudi Arabia.
Sharooq Ali Balhamer

Corruption and Human Rights in Saudi Arabia: Recommendations for the Government

Corruption is a hindrance to the economic progress of any country as well as the progress of citizens. This paper analyzes the context of corruption in the country by analyzing various sectors such as judiciary, legislative department, tax, customs, and land administration, and on the public and civil society. The paper recommends the making of periodic reviews of existing legislations and benchmarking with other regional and international agencies as a way of curbing corruption and improving human rights protection.
Danah A Boudy

The Issues of the Medical Insurance Class C for Immigrant Worker

In 2015, Saudi Arabia made it compulsory for all the residents to have a medical Insurance. The main aim of this law was to help the people of the country to receive the healthcare facilities that they require. However, there are several problems with the application of the laws concerning medical insurance. Firstly, it has been found that certain employers made the employees pay for medical insurance despite the law asking them to pay for it. Secondly, most of the medical insurances are created just to satisfy the law and not meet the objectives of the law that is treatment for the foreigners. The C Class insurance only provides basic healthcare services in clinics not hospitals. Moreover, most of these expatriates are treated poorly if they visit clinics with their C class medical insurance. This research found that there are several ways to solve problems concerning C class insurance. These include discarding the class system in the field of medical insurance, the government providing medical insurance, removing the C class medical insurance and keeping the other levels. These recommendations are discussed in the research.
Saba Shadhan

Autism: Liability in Legal conducts and in Crimes

Autism is a special kind of disorder due to the different stages it has from severe conditions to semi-normal conditions which shows the person normally like the rest of the general population. This disorder arises two main questions that will be answered in this research which are, the liability of autism in conducting legal rights, actions and the liability of committing crimes.
Haifa Ibrahim F. Alshehri

The legal status of Saudi-Kuwait Neutral Zone

Neutral zone of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait is a 5700 km2 land between the two countries that exists due to unlimited borders. The land became important in 1938 when oil was discovered in the Burqan oilfield. In 1956, the Getty Inc. with the permission of Saudi Arabia discovered oil in the neutral zone. The actions of Saudi Arabia displeased Kuwait since prior permission was not taken from Kuwait to start operations at the Wafra oil field, which was a part of the neutral zone closer to the south of Saudi Arabia. However, the dispute between the two brotherly nations was solved and the two nations jointly exploit the neutral zone to squeeze oil from it. However, in 2015 the operations in the neutral zone have ceased. The initial reason cited by Saudi Arabia to stop operations in the Wafra oil field in 2014 was environmental issues. However, Kuwait followed the footsteps of Saudi Arabia to stop operations in the Khafji oil field as well. There are several issues concerning the cease of operations in the neutral zone. It is essential for both the nations to resolve the dispute in order to strengthen their individual economy and prevent the global oil market from inflation. The research discusses these issues alongside potential solutions to these problems.
Abrar Dawood

The Rights of Abortion for Women in Saudi Arabia

This paper provides an overview of the laws that govern abortion in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is considered to be a predominantly Muslim country and hence much of the regulations and laws governing abortion are influenced by the religious beliefs of Islam teachings. This paper analyzes factors and even quotes scriptures from the Qur’an that support and offer guidance to these practices. To understand these regulations further, the article goes into detail to analyze the issue on when life begins and how this influences the law guiding abortion. Although there are no data that showcases the prevalence of abortion in Saudi Arabia, data from international countries showcase that some of its residents seek these services while living or even visiting countries that allow abortion.
Rawan Ali Alfulful

Criminal Procedures for Women in Saudi Arabia

This paper examines the legal procedures involving several activities pertaining to that the court will undertake in order to process the criminal case of an accused. These procedures include collecting evidences, collecting testimonies, holding up the rights of the accused or perpetrator and so on.
Mashael Emad AlJehani

Statute of Limitation for Criminal Law: A Study of Islamic Jurisprudence and Saudi System

This research paper examines the limitation on criminal aspect from Islamic jurisprudence and Saudi system perspective. This is to find out to which extent limitation on criminal aspect was adopted from both of them. There are disagreements between Islamic jurists on the Islamic principle which states that "rights do not fall off even when limitation periods have expired".  Findings from this examination revealed that all jurists of Four School agreed that there is no limitation could apply to Diya and Qisas offences. They, however, agreed that limitation could apply on Tazir offences. Additionally, they only disagreed on Hududd offenses where some of them saw that it could be applied and the other not. Furthermore, Saudi system apply limitation in Tazir only by royal pardon.
Hadeel Hamad AlQahtani

Counterfeit Products in Saudi Arabia: A Commercial Law Perspective

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a study on the issue of counterfeit goods in Saudi Arabia. The paper highlights the continuous threat posed by counterfeit products to the economic development of Saudi Arabia. It also examines some of the mechanisms that the government of Saudi Arabia has put in place to address the issue of counterfeit products across the country including the efficacy of Saudi Arabia’s trademark protection laws and suggests different ways to help the authority implement them.
Awliya Alsaihati

Online Fake Trade and Scams

This research paper discusses the issue of Online Fake Trade Scams in Saudi Arabia and the level of awareness people have regarding laws in Saudi Arabia regulating Online Fake Trade Scams. The research suggests solutions on how the government could protect consumers from online trade scammers, and it also recommends an establishment of new law which punishes online scammers and protects consumers.
Bouthynah Alshanqiti

Impersonation and Identity Theft

Computers and Information Technology (IT) have become the mainstay of business and government processes. The theft of online private personal data is common today, often hacked by hackers. It can be either the personal information on social media accounts, website accounts or any official website of any organization. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formation of laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem. This report discusses the main idea of impersonation and its impacts in Saudi Arabia. Also, it discusses the punishments that should be imposed by Saudi government on criminal and what actions Saudi government should take to eradicate this issue.
Basma Abdullah

Medical Errors in Saudi Arabia

This study will evaluate the medical errors in Saudi Arabia. It will evaluate the challenges for reporting medical errors and penalty for disciplinary liability. The medication errors occur mostly during prescribing so to improve the patient safety, computerized physician order entry is crucial. This paper reviews the importance of information technology in reducing medication errors both in inpatient and outpatient care settings as well as the use of informatics and to use computers, various databases, physicians can treat the patients more effectively. The study will review different literature to conclude the standard errors, the challenges of reporting, and the penalty for liabilities.
Njood Obaid Alsbaie

The Challenges Faced by Foreign Arbitrator in the Kingdom

The main aim of the study is to examine the weaknesses in the arbitration system and the problems in the arbitration laws in order to enhance the Saudi arbitration system. It will focus on these issues and will further interview three experts in this field to enlighten the study with recommendations to improve the system. The objective is to increase the competence of the arbitration system of Saudi Arabia since critics have often criticized it for its weaknesses, uncertainties and lack of competence.
Duaa Batook

Terrorism in Saudi Arabia

Terrorism is defined as an indiscriminate use of violence over masses in order to achieve a political pursuit. ISIS has caused the indiscriminate and reckless killing of people all around the world. However, naïve people who lack knowledge regarding the role of ISIS in terrorism get brainwashed by their words and join the terrorist organization. There are several people like Shamima Begum, Hoda Muthana and so on who have survived in the regime of ISIS and desire to come back to their respective country, which is UK and USA respectively. Nonetheless, their respective countries have rejected them. Saudi Arabia has rescued its children from the hands of ISIS and have brought them back safely to the kingdom. It is essential for Saudi Arabia to eradicate terrorism to ensure the security of the people and the financial stability of the country. This research examines the efforts carried out by Saudi Arabia regarding counter terrorism mechanism and suggests more steps the Kingdom can take to combat terrorism.
Reem Al Musleh

Section 101 Spring 2018-2019

Project Student

Termination of Employment Contracts and End of Service Benefits of Employees under the Saudi Arabia Labor Law

This research explores and identifies the different laws embodied in Saudi Arabia Labor Law pertaining to termination of employees specifically the valid grounds and effects  termination. Further, this paper presents the damages that can be filed upon the severance of employer-employee relationship as well as the end of service benefit. The issues presented were answered using the qualitative methodoly of research. Conclusions and recommendations were given by the researcher at end of this paper in order to summarize the whole research and to suggest for improvements.
Abdulrahman Ahmed Alabdullatif

Sponsorship System in Saudi Labor Law

There is a need to monitor the sponsorship system for migrant laborers in Saudi Arabia. In most cases, the system monitors unskilled and semi-skilled laborers, primarily those working in the domestic and construction sectors. The rationale of this system is that in most cases, the unskilled immigrant laborers are exposed to poor working conditions, physical abuse, verbal abuse, reduced wages, harsh living conditions, social sanctions, rape, among other human rights violations. The study will seek to explore the following research questions; To what extent does labor sponsorship contribute to the violation of human rights? What are the current policy interventions being implemented to solve the situation? What are international labor organizations doing about the current state of kafala in KSA?
Ibrahim Al-Ajaji

Environmental Laws and the Dairy Business in Saudi Arabia.

This research intends to examine the Environmental Laws in Saudi Arabia concerning the dairy business and determine the relation and effect to the Environment and Environmental Laws of Saudi Arabia including whether or not the Environmental Laws are properly enforced and to ascertain whether the Dairy Business violate any Environmental Laws. Lastly, it will make a recommendation on the improvement of Environmental Law for Dairy Business.
Bader Albassam

Commercial Concealment in Saudi Arabia

The study aims to examine the legal problem associated with commercial concealment in Saudi Arabia. The first question will involve identifying the reasons that have motivated the locals to engage in commercial concealment activities. Moreover, the questions will assess the official bodies expected to combat commercial concealment and what they have legally done so far. The study will also identify the economic, security, and social reasons caused by the phenomenon. The questions will aim to ascertain the foreign nationalities engaged in commercial concealment and the kind of operations they conduct. The inquiry will aim to establish the role of official agencies charged with the responsibility of addressing the issue. In essence, the questions will cover the legal challenge of commercial concealment in Saudi Arabia comprehensively.  
Nawaf Alkhallaf

Money laundering and the Role of Lawyers Confidentiality

One of the obligations of a lawyer is to respect confidentiality when dealing with a client in order to gain reputation and mostly the client’s trust. But that could lead to a misunderstanding to how confidentiality works, which could lead to be abused by criminals in order to hide from the authorities. This means that money launderers could use law firms and lawyers to legitimize their money. This research examines these issues.
Maan Sindi

E-commerce Anti-Fraud and Consumer Protection

Due to the lack of laws and regulation in E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia, there are some problems with E-Commerce pricing, seller identification and product description. This research attempts at resolving issues in eliminating anonymous sites and the ability to communicate with the known sellers to be able to discuss the pricing and description of the product and to allow the users to make a review about the product.
Hussam Aljihsi

Bankruptcy Law in Saudi Arabia

Bankruptcy is the procedure of providing financial relief to individuals and organizations that are overwhelmed by burdens of debt by impeding the legal actions taken by creditors. In 2018, a new bankruptcy law in Saudi Arabia came into effect. Financial analysts and economists provided positive feedback regarding the predicted long-term effects of the law on the country’s economy. It is a popular assumption that the bankruptcy law will increase attention from investors. However, there is a need to investigate and analyze any potential problems arising from the new law that might negatively impact foreign investment. This paper will examine some of the issues associated with the new bankruptcy law with respect to foreign investors.
Raed Alghamdi

Media Law in Saudi Arabia

The main objective of this research is to explore media laws in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries where the issue of the censorship of the media is prevalent. The research commences with an introduction that offers background information on the topic of research and sets the course for the research problem. It employs both the primary sources and secondary sources of data. The findings of this research indicate that Saudi Arabia has set up strategies that curb individuals from reporting anything that endangers the interest of the government and offends the royal house. Some of the limits on media reporting such as defamation, public order and interest of the government are in line with international media law. For this reason, the article concludes by giving some suggestions on how media laws in Saudi Arabia could be improved.
Faisal Aljamea

The Privatization of Sports Clubs in Saudi Arabia

The privatization of sports clubs in Saudi Arabia is a lucrative idea on paper. The European sports industry is very attractive to the spectators given how much money the industry is worth. From how much European players earn, to how much they make on ticket sales and even how much their clubs spend to sign a new player, privatizing sports clubs sounds like a great idea for Saudi Arabia. The kingdom has a wealthy private sector that can make sports as profitable in Saudi Arabia as it is in the West. However, many challenges come with being the first Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nation to privatize sports. There are both legal and cultural hurdles to consider, including the reality that not all sports clubs are profitable enough to operate like business firms. This paper looks into the negative impact of privatizing sports clubs in Saudi Arabia and the legal issues involved, as well as the positive factors associated with the idea.
Khalid N. Al Shamlan

Unfair Dismissal in Saudi Arabia

The main ordeal and focus of this research is based on the understanding of the unfair dismissal and its effects on the working sector of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, this research is also based on the shortcomings of working under an employer without a contract and the drawbacks of unfair dismissal for the workers of Saudi Arabia. The main goal of this study is to help the workers by spreading awareness of the redundancy rights they have and how they can use it in their favor. 
Ibrahim Alarifi

Issue of Tax Zakat Estimation for Small Business

Zakat estimation is a problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where zakat it is supposed to be accurate instead of being taken out of estimation. Many zakat is wasted because it was not calculated properly. This research finds that there is no certain criteria for zakat estimation – zakat estimation is unfair to people since it is not accurate and can lead to authority of zakat overestimating a small business’ income. The research recommended to cease the zakat estimation and replace it with bills system and the electronic bills system.
Abdulellah Alzuwaid

The Inconsistency of Judicial Rulings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Sharia is a complete and comprehensive law for all aspects of the life of Muslims without exception and is valid for any time and place as it is the divine law of the world. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that apply Islamic law in all its transactions and regulations by reference to its constitution based on the holy Quran and the Sunnah. However, sometimes the application may be disrupted due to differences of jurisprudence among that there is no codification of these provisions which leads to the Inconsistency of judicial rulings in the Kingdom. Thus, some errors may occur unintentionally. Hence, this research is to clarify an important matter which is the subject of codification of these through the adoption of the penalty he deems appropriate, and this undoubtedly leads to the occurrence of serious errors and at times reach the stage of injustice. Therefore, the idea of legalization of penalties is to get the accused his right and to ensure that the punishment is to deter people so as not re-offend. The purpose of this research is to clarify the discrepancy in the Tasir judgments issued by the judges and to clarify the benefits of codification.
Aseel Albalawi

Adaptation of Contracts due to Unforeseen Events or Force Majeure

The fundamental principle of sanctity of contracts (pacta sunt servanda) is an international doctrine that guides operationalization of contracts. It suggests that in a contract, the obligor must remain bound to the terms under any conditions in accordance with predictability of the law and the principle of good faith. Nevertheless, circumstances during implementation of a contract may significantly change in future due to unforeseen events. This fact may become burdening for one side in such cases when supervening events collapse the foundation of a contract, making the obligor unable to reasonably uphold the agreement. Adaptation of an arrangement is the process of reviewing and renegotiating it when unforeseen hardships occur. While there is no universal law of contract adaptation, most of the existing regional or international doctrines are founded on similar provisions and/or ideologies. Contractual renegotiations are procedural, and they may sometimes involve third parties if the two parent sides cannot strike an agreement. In this view, different arbitrary and negotiation processes may be adopted to find common ground. This research paper examines adaptation of contracts due to unforeseen events or force majeure. It delves into probable causes of contract adaptation and the main ways of the procedure.Primarily, the mechanism is a remedy to the limitations of pacta sunt servanda, and it may be considered in various cases of unforeseen hardships.
Basem AlGhamdi

Section 101 Fall 2018-2019

Research Projects Students

Bilateral Arbitration Treaty

In recent years, the concept of bilateral arbitration treaties has attracted interest over the legality and efficiency of arbitration treaties. Arbitration is an alternative form of dispute resolution that is designed to promote economic efficiency in trade and enhance the administration of justice. However, some quarters have expressed concerns on the enforcement of arbitral awards under the BAT. The main objective of this research project is to make a case for the BAT by undertaking a critical appraisal of BAT and identifying the inadequacies of the current international legal framework on commercial arbitration.
Ali Ibrahim Abusaai

Patient’s Rights in Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabian healthcare system is growing rapidly because of the increased investment by the government. Even with the advancement in healthcare, there is an increase in adverse events in the clinical practice. However, few studies have addressed the medical conflicts in Saudi Arabia. There are increasing patterns of medical errors and litigation in the country.  In this study, the researcher looks into various committees that help in the process of medical conflict litigations.
Moataz Sultan A Alotaibi

Imprisonment for Small Debts and the Alternative Sanctions

This research focuses on the deprivation of someone liberty by imprisonment in small cases in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia such minor debts and the effect of this punishment on the person. The main area of the analysis will be inclusion of matters relating to deprivation of someone liberty by putting him in jail for a minor debt. This study also examines the possibility of using some alternative punishments rather than putting someone in jail for such small cases.
Abdulrahman Alsayyar

The Relationship between International Court of Justice and the Security Council

The United Nations is an umbrella body which has other organs. One of these organs of the United Nations is the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). The other organ, which is judicial, is the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Even though many people believe that the UNSC and ICJ perform different functions and are independent of each other, the truth is that these two organs are not fully independent of each other. The fact that International Court of Justice is purely judicial in nature while United Nations Security Council is tasked to maintain peace and security makes the functions of UNSC and ICJ to be worlds apart. However, the former has more powers than the latter and there is a constant interference of the work of the ICJ by the UNSC. This article is going to discuss the way the UN Security Council interferes with the operations of the International Court of Justice, be it in the rulings that the ICJ makes or in the appointment of the ICJ judges.
Dahem Aldossary

Constructive Dismissal

Constructive dismissal is a topic that can relate obviously to law, and to psychology. No one can face a constructive dismissal without stress and pressure that might effect on him psychologically, this kind of decision is hard especially when quitting out is the only solution and that what the employer want! This research project is aiming on identifying constructive dismissal clearly and compare it with other kinds of dismissal, comparing what different law has stated about constructive dismissal, and finally how the Saudi Legislator acted against this kind of situations.
Mosaad Almutair

Anti-cybercrimes Law in Saudi Arabia

In February 2007 the Council of Ministers in Saudi Arabia endorsed the Anti-Cybercrime Act. Is this law effective in playing its role of fighting cyber-crimes in the country? The enforcement of the law is what makes the law effective in achieving its aims. Many researchers have found that there is an issue in the enforcement of that law. This research evaluated the status of enforcement of the Saudi anti cyber-crimes law and diagnosed these obstacles facing it by examining the legislation, how judges dealt with cyber-crimes, how does the law enforcement conduct the investigation and a survey to measure the level of awareness of the cyber-crime law. Finally, the research will conclude with suggestions and recommendations that hopefully will help to reach better enforcement of the Saudi anti cyber-crimes law.
Mohammad Alkhuzayem

The Need for Legislation on The Transplantation of Human Organs in Saudi Arabia

Organ transplantation has been going on in different countries for years. This research is to highlight the legitimacy of the transplantation of human organs. The study will begin by introducing the issues of organ transplantation in general and then it will narrow down to Saudi Arabia and International Conventions. This research will proceed to provide a qualitative literature on the issues regarding the need for a legislation and a penal code for the human organ transplantation in Saudi Arabia. scholarly journals will form the basis of the research literature. The paper provides suitable research questions, which will be analyzed and discussed in details before a conclusion and recommendation are provided.
Abdulmohsen Mohammed Al Muhaysin

Medical Errors in Saudi Arabia

It was noted at least seventeen million such cases of medical negligence occur in high income nations. Twenty-six million errors occurred in middle and low-income states. In Saudi Arabia, which can be classified as a high-income country, there have been several instances on national news about medical errors causing some controversy and public uproar. This issue has been quite persistent and even terrified patients making them frightened of going to hospitals for treatment. This research paper proposes to investigate the medical errors that have occurred in Saudi Arabia in the last couple of years.
Abdulrahman Alsunaid

Section 201 Fall 2018-2019

Title Student


Child Trafficking and Forced Labor.

Child trafficking is presumably one of the major global issues given its high incidence rate. An analysis of previous literature demonstrates a notable gap in integrating the concepts of child trafficking and forced labor. The research seeks to fill such gap by undertaking library-based research through explanatory design in understanding child trafficking and forced labor. Significantly, the direct correlation between child trafficking and forced labor introduces a unique dimension on the importance of promoting child well-being from a multifaceted approach. The issue of child labor remains a global issue as evident in its contribution to the world economy. The developed research findings underscore on the importance of mitigating problems related to trafficking among children in eliminating their susceptibility to both trafficking and forced labor. Therefore, the completion of the study creates an appropriate platform for discerning the inherent aspects influencing child trafficking and forced labor.
Laila Alaradi


Jury Power from Early Times to The Present Day: The case of Saudi Arabia

This research paper focuses on analyzing the legislation and laws practiced in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of understanding major reasons for the urgent need of introducing jury systems and other legal practices within the nation. The study also focuses on highlighting the current legal system, which is being followed in Saudi Arabia. A major comparison of Saudi Arabia’s legal system has been conducted with the jury system of the US as well as that of Germany. The statements of different problems associated with the legal system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia also comprises various issues faced by the public of the nation in terms of court systems has also been highlighted in this study.
Rawan Alhudaib


Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and United States of America

In all over the world during the past decade, a public and mutual concern extended in regard to water crisis. This research project aims to focus on the reuse of treated wastewater as one of the major solutions for countries that suffers water scarcity. The reuse of treated wastewater is receiving unique attention in both Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and United States of America as a viable and applicable source of water. The paper will specifically focus on regulations, enacted laws, principles, and actions taken by government of both countries for the aim or reusing treated wastewater. This research paper method is qualitative; it will be library-based. The research information will be gain from enacted regulation of both Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and United States of America, studies and statistics of current state of wastewater treatment and reuse of both countries, thus, a legal analysis. The analysis will include a detailed examination of Wastewater treatment and reuse system 2000 in Saudi Arabia, The Clean Water Act 1972, and other documents significate in the context of wastewater treatment and reuse. The enforcement of water regulations like the Clean Water Act and regulation National Water Company in KSA would lead to encourage the conservation of industrial water and reuse by the implementation of more restrictive standards for discharge wastewater.
Danah Aljaber


Domestic Violence Against Children and Children Criminal Behavior

This paper will discuss the issue of the phenomena of Domestic violence and how violence can negatively affect the mental and psychological health of children who are survivors of violence and whether they can acquire criminal behavior because of exposure to extreme violence or witnessing violence, by explore criminals’ minds and how they gain this behavior we derived that from the theory of James Fallon, Adrian Raine, and Palmer. As well as, this paper will discuss the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia efforts to protect children who are exposed to domestic violence by their parent and the kingdom's attempts to prevent domestic violence and the introduction of The National Safety Program.
Rzan Alnahdi

Freedom of Expression

This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview on the existence of the right of freedom of speech in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Specifically, the paper will discuss where the right of speech exists in the Saudi legal system, and what are the proper means of practicing such right among the Saudi community. Also, the paper will explain the restrictions upon the right of freedom of speech which is ruled by the government of Saudi Arabia. Furtherly, the content of this paper will identify the punishments under the Saudi legal system for violating the limitations of freedom of speech in Saudi Arabia, and will clarify the controversy upon the accusations against Saudi Arabia for breaching the international human rights standards by imposing harsh punishment for the violation the restrictions of the right of freedom of speech in the KSA.
Sarah Alshehri

Current Assessment of Attributing the International State Responsibility for Wrongful Act.

The conducted research seeks to examine the extent of attributing the responsibility to the state for an internationally wrongful conduct under the umbrella of the ILC articles, due to the contentious issues that concerns the adequacy of the doctrine of attribution, particularly for the acts committed by non-state actors. This research explored at the authority of the ILC draft articles, the relationship between the ILC articles and the ICJ, and the recent opinions of the international community in regard of proceeding with the codifying process of the articles. It also examines the principle of attribution if the conduct is committed by a state organ, though when the conduct is committed by non-state organ the principal of attribution “specifically in regard of the standard tests (strict control and effective control) that have been developed in the light of the article eight” appears inadequate, due to their loose organization and their high threshold.
            Raged  A Alshnaiber


The Phenomena of Deforestation and Desertification in the Kingdom of Saudi


The phenomenon of deforestation has left several effects where desertification is one of them. This research focuses on major current environmental issues related to what has been characterized as causes and effects of deforestation in Saudi Arabia and the efforts of limiting this issue. In addition to, the issue related to what has been characterized as effects of desertification in Saudi Arabia, and the efforts of limiting this issue. Most of previously conducted researches did not focus on Saudi Arabia region from the scope of the phenomena of deforestation and desertification that the region is suffering from. Moreover, most of previously conducted researches failed to address the relation between the phenomena of deforestation and desertification. The aim of this research is to examine Saudi Arabia efforts of limiting both the phenomena of deforestation and desertification, along with highlighting the environmental relation with Saudi Arabia 2030 vision. This research used qualitative method to accomplish its aim by referring to legislation and articles. The phenomena of deforestation did cause environmental injustice, which accordingly, did break up the environmental balance, where Saudi Arabia do provide environmental fair treatment based on the income for those who can afford it only. Saudi Arabia do deals adequately in limiting the phenomena of deforestation and desertification, where it enacted the Law of Pasture and Forests, the National Transformation Program 2020, the Green Kingdom Program, memorandums of planting, along with joined forces between the people and Saudi government. However, the Pasture and Forests Law are not adequately enforced to the level of limiting people who cause harm to the forests and trees. Moreover, the efforts of reforestation and reducing desertification do benefits Saudi Arabia 2030 vision that focused on the environment of the region where it been included in its themes and initiatives under the aim of achieving a vibrant society with fulfilling lives.  
Ghidaa Al-qattan        


Domestic Violence in Saudi Arabia.

Domestic violence remains one of the most prevalent forms of abuse in the modern era. Everywhere around the globe, a day hardly passes without news outlets bringing a story about a woman, man or child who has been abused, physically or otherwise, within the family structure. The prevalence of this phenomenon is such that in some societies, people have almost normalized it – when it happens, people no longer consider it a serious issue. Nevertheless, this does not change the fact that domestic violence is one of the most insidious crimes that occur within our societies today. This article examines the treatment of women in Saudi Arabia and explores the gaps within the protective services that make women vulnerable in this country.
Munirah H Alosaimi   

The international efforts to counter Terrorism

The fight against terrorism is an interest shared by the international community, as terrorism is a direct threat to international peace and security. In this note, this research aims to discuss and examine the international and regional efforts to counter and fight terrorism. The research seeks to review the legal instruments that have been established to ensure the compliance of States In order to suppress terrorism. As well, the present study aims to shed a light on Saudi Arabia’s efforts and measures in the fight against terrorism.
Lena S Alhajri 

Medical Negligence and the Compensation Claim in Saudi Arabia

The purpose of this report is to know more about medical liability and the compensation claim in Saudi Arabia, and explore matters concerning the topic. The problem in this report is to find out whether there is an arising liability from medical malpractice and negligence and to analyze the legal procedures for a successful claim resulting from medical negligence in Saudi Arabia.
Shaikha Y Aldossary